Thursday, October 24, 2019

Organization and Behaviour Essay

Contents 1. Compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture 2. Explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business 3. Discuss the factors that influence the individual’s behaviour at work 4. Compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organisations 5. Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management 6. Evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organisations 7. Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisations in periods of change 8. Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace 9. Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers 10. Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations 11. Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations 12. Evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organisation P1: Compare and contrast different organisational structures and culture. Organisational structure: There are different types of organisational structures. There is the Functional structure which is based on the activities that people do in the organisation then the Product based structure, when the product determines the structure, the Geographically based structure when the location determines the structure and the last one is the Matrix structure (segregation) which is the combination of functions (activities) and product. Organisational culture: Is the values and behaviours that contribute to the unique social and psychological, Organisational culture is the sum of an organisation past and current experiences, philosophy and values that hold it together and is expressed in its self-image. The organisational structure focuses on the mentality, work ethic and the values of the company’s management and employees. The main factors that influence the structure of an organisation are products, environment, staff, task, culture and management style, size number and type of dept. A culture of innovation, teamwork and partnership means that the company has a firm foundation of relationships and open communication channels on which to build its growth. A major determinant of an organisations structure is its culture. The general nature of culture in terms of both external influences and how things are done as well as common values, belief and attitude will have a significant effect on organisational processes including the design of structure. P2: Based on the scenario given explain how the relationship between an organisation’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business. The way the Coca cola company works reflects the many countries and cultures in which it does business. An essential part of the organisation’s structure therefore focuses on ensuring that individual products are given the best possible support in regional markets. Within the company different teams concentrate on particular products and use their specialist knowledge of the brands and consumer needs to support the sales and promotional effort. In some cases a product is developed solely for local consumption and an example of this is the product Lilt, which is only available in Great Britain and Ireland. A structure depends on the organization’s objectives and strategy. In a centralized structure, the top layer of the management has most of the decision making power and has tight control of departments and divisions. In a decentralized structure, the decisions making power is distributed and the departments and divisions have different degrees of independence. A company such Coca-Cola Great Britain is a more centralized structure that has a corporate (Head office) that is responsible for giving the company an overall direction and providing support to the regional structure. P3: Discuss the factors which influence individual behaviour at work. Organisations are made up of their individual members. The individual in a central feature of organisational behaviour whether acting in isolation or as part of a group in response to expectations of the organisation or as a result of the influences of the external environment. Where the needs of the individual and the demands of the organisation as incompatible this can result in frustration and conflict. It is the role of management to integrate the individual and the organisation and to provide a working environment that permits the satisfaction of individual needs as well as the attainment of organisational goals. The first factor to consider is the location. The organisation has to think about how they can improve the environment so that the staff will remain motivated at work. A good location and environment helps to create a positive attitude to staff and customers. Another factor is the amount of working hours. Hours of work are extremely different throughout the industry- some people are happy to work unsocial hours because it fits with their lifestyle or they wish to have time off when everyone is working. On the other hand, the overall amount of hours per week should not go over 40 hours. If staff are working overtime consistently it will not influence them to come into work so it is important that all hours of work is balanced. Safety and security factors must be considered in the workplace, and legislation such as Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 must be adhered to. These regulations particular apply where food is served or where there are chemical hazards, for example in a swimming pool. All these requirements are important. For some organisations a little error in the safety procedures can mean the end of the business including a trial. Companies that organise activity holidays for children, for example Disney Land, Thorpe Park or London Dungeon, must make health and safety a priority. Health and safety is important for both customers and employees. When employees know that they can go about their work in safe environment and work together to ensure their customers are safe then this could also influence them because they will know that they are working in a safe environment. Most Companies organise Christmas parties or social events and outings for staff. These are useful to create a friendship amongst staff and help influence staff to build solid teams within the organisation. Good pay may is also another factor as staff like to see that their hard work has paid off. P4: Compare the effectiveness of the different leadership styles in two or more organisations of your choice. Management in an organisation is about influencing people to behave in positive ways so that the team can achieve its general goal. A good manager must inform, motivate and develop the team as a whole. An autocratic manager makes all the decisions and announces them to the team. This person is the boss and has full control. The main advantage of this kind of leadership is that decisions are made quickly, as no meeting will be held about the decisions made by the leader. The advantages that could motivate staff include: * Where there is a need for urgent action the autocrat will take control * Some team members gain security from being told what to do. The disadvantages are: * Team members may become frustrated at their lack of control * There may not be room for the team to express creativity * There may be over-dependence on the leader. Autocratic management belongs in a traditional hierarchical structure. Democratic management: With democratic management, the decision-making is shared among the team. The advantages include: * Ideas are encouraged from everyone * There is greater involvement and commitment from team members * The team is likely to be supportive of leader * The team is fully informed. The disadvantages include: * Some team members may not be able to cope with being involved in decision-making * The democratic process can take too long * The leader may not agree with the decision of the team * Powerful team member may take over. P5: Explain how organisational theory underpins the practice of management. Organisational theory: Organisational theory represents a young and complex field of study related to the behaviour of organisations and companies. Through particular methods like analysis, generalisations and observation, organisation theory specialists try to determine how companies and organisations will behave in certain situations. ( The way the organisational theory underpins the practice of management is by bringing change to actual behaviour. It can influence the manager’s behaviour which can be observed in the ideas portrayed or conclusions. It is important as it helps give insight to interrelationships between the development of theory, behaviour in organisations and management practice. It also gives an understanding of the development of management thinking. The knowledge of the history helps in the understanding of the nature of management and organisational behaviour. Many of the earlier ideas are of continuing importance to the manager and later ideas in management tend to incorporate early ideas of conclusions. P6 & P7: Using an organisation of your choice evaluate the different approaches to management. Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organisation in periods of change. The organisation that I will be evaluating is Tesco which is a PLC (Public Limited Company). I will be talking about the different approaches to management. There is a difference between management and leadership. Management is about getting things done. Managers organise human and physical resources to achieve business aims and objectives. Leadership is about influencing, motivating and inspiring people. It is about coaching and developing people, treating them with respect but challenging them. Leaders seek to create strong teams, with people committed to the organisation’s overall goals. The process of managing starts with the target or objective to be achieved. A manager must decide on the appropriate approach for reaching that target. The manager then needs to communicate this approach clearly to his or her team and to allocate tasks to each team member. Task allocation and delegation of responsibility is part of the management function. However, other factors will also have an influence on whether the target is achieved, including the task in hand, the skills of the team and the style of leadership. The style of leadership can vary depending on the task. Some managers allow teams to take charge of their own decision-making for many tasks. Team leaders will set the objectives but empower team members to decide how these objectives are achieved. This has several advantages. It helps to motivate individuals in the team and it draws on the expertise of the members of the team. The leadership style that Tesco store managers sit between autocratic and democratic both th ese styles allow staff to participate to an extent. However the manager has the right to reserve the final decision. Managers who lead using the autocratic leadership style often tend to give clear direction to staff and are good in terms of managing a crisis but this method does not allow team member to be heard and creative. On the other hand a democratic manager will consult with staff before making his final decision this style of leadership helps encourage staff to put forward ideas and increases motivation. Some manager will adopt leadership styles in which are appropriate to the situation. Most managers prefer to take a democratic approach as they feel that staff respond better to this approach. For example when planning a major stock reduction programme at Tesco the store manager may encourage other management within the store to put forward ideas and develop plans as said before this increases team motivation and encourages creativity. Although some mistakes may be made this can be put forward as a learning experience. However as a store manager they may deal with many different situations. Some may be business critical and it is important that the manager is able to respond to these situations in the most appropriate manner. In some situations the manager may need to adapt the leadership approach and exert more authority. Laissez-faire is at the other end of the field from autocratic. A laissez-faire manager takes a ‘hands-off’ approach and trusts teams to take appropriate decisions or actions with broad agreed boundaries. For example, a store manager might leave an experienced departmental manager to develop a budget. This could be because he trusts that the manager has a good knowledge of the needs of the department and of the business. Although each manager will have their own preferred leadership style, the most effective leaders take on a style that is appropriate depending on the situation. They will consider several factors such as: * The task – Is it business critical? Must a decision be made immediately? What will be the potential impact on the business? * The team – Does it have the right skills and resources? Is it used to making decisions? * Tradition – What has been the norm in the past? For example, a manager that uses a more authoritarian style if something needs achieving in a particular way or in a very quick timeframe. Sometimes budgets need to be reduced quickly in order to make cost savings. The store manager will tell departmental managers what needs to be done and by when so that they can then resubmit their budgets in line with expectations. Managers have to be aware of the possible consequences of using the wrong style in a particular situation. For example, a manager will not use a laissez-faire approach with a new member of the team. If the employee is not given proper instruction this could jeopardise the business. In some cases employees could be injured if they don’t use the equipment correctly. In this situation, it is essential to adopt an autocratic style. P8: Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace. Theories of motivation Maslow America 1940, Abraham Maslow developed a theory of motivation. The theory is suitable for trying to understand how people are motivated in the workplace. Employers can use it to provide conditions that fulfil people’s needs at the different levels. Maslow’s theory is displayed as a pyramid because employees can only move up the levels once the lower levels are fulfilled. So for example an employee cannot achieve at work (level 4) if they having problems in their personal life or with work colleagues like in (level 3). Similarly, if they have just been made homeless (level) their concern will be finding shelter not performing work, meaning people have to be satisfied with their own needs and their life before even being motivated to do work. Herzberg Herzberg’s theory is also known as the ‘Hygiene’ theory. Herzberg recognized features which make people happy and satisfied with their jobs and those which make them dissatisfied and unhappy he called the ‘satisfiers’ and ‘dissatisfies’. The ‘satisfiers’ are factors which give people continuing motivation and allow them to enjoy their work: * The type of work * Promotion prospects * Having responsibility * Sense of achievement * Personal development * Gaining recognition. The ‘dissatisfies’ or hygiene factors need to be operating well in an organisation but according to Herzberg do not ultimately motivate people. However, if they are unsatisfactory then they do de-motivate people. These are: * Salary * Working conditions * Relationships with others – colleagues and managers * Company policy P9: Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers. The motivational theory is useful for managers because of the practical implications it has on individuals lacking in motivation, which in most cases do not have clear goals. Specific performance should systematically be identified and set in order to direct behaviour and maintain motivation. Goals should be set at a challenging but realistic level. Difficult goals lead to higher performances however if goals are set too high a level or regarded as impossible to achieve this can lead to stress and performance will suffer especially over a longer period. It is assumed that complete accurate and timely feedback and knowledge of results is usually associated with high performance. Feedback provides a means of checking progress of goal attainment and forms the basis of any revision of goals. Although goals can be determined either by a superior or by individuals themselves goals set by other people are more likely to be accepted when there is participation. Employee participation in the setting of goals may lead to higher performance P10: Explain the nature of groups and group behaviour within organisations Group work: Good groups achieve synergy; that is, together they can achieve more than the members could individually. More ideas, energy and resources are made as a group because: * The group solves problems and make decisions together * The group focuses on priorities, with everyone working towards the same aim * The group provides a sense of belonging and sense of status * The group provides a support network Not everyone in a group is the same – each person has their own strengths and weaknesses. If each person had the same weaknesses, the group could not work; there needs to be a balance of skills. A method of recognising individuals’ strengths and weaknesses is needed in order to build and effective team. The management expert R. Meredith Belbin has outlined nine team roles necessary for successful team. Belbin’s roles: C hairperson/co-ordinator – the group leader, likely to be relaxed and outgoing person, also likely to be a good communicator. They will build on the strengths of team members and give them encouragement. Plant – the ideas person in the team, a person who is creative in looking for solutions to problems, but not always good at details, and so may make careless mistakes. Shaper – the task leader, who unites ideas and effort. Needs to be dominant and outgoing person in order to make things happen. Monitor/evaluator – the team analyst, who is not so good at ideas but pays attention to detail, therefore keeping the team directed towards its target. Implementer – the organiser of the team, who is able to take the ideas of the plant and shaper and turn them into manageable and realistic tasks, a practical, stable and disciplined person.   Resource investigator – the person who is outgoing and will explore and report on ideas and developments outside the group; this person always has a solution to problems, is sociable and enthusiastic, and good under pressure. Team worker – a very people-oriented person, sensitive to others’ needs. The team worker has good communication skills and will be good at motivating others. A natural mediator, who will deal with any conflict within the team, this person is very good to have around in a crisis. Finisher – a person who sticks to deadlines and likes to get on with things. Will probably be irritated by the more relaxed members of the team. Specialist – this person is single-minded and a self-starter, and provides knowledge and skills in specialist areas. Each of Belbin’s roles acquires a different level of importance according to the objectives of the team and the stage in the team’s life. P11: Discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organisations. Team development: Formal teams are part of the structure of an organisation and are planned in order to meet that organisation’s objectives. The official team will follow rules and rules and may meet on a fixed schedule and complete administrative procedures. Examples of good practice in travel and tourism include sales teams and marketing teams. Informal teams work within or outside formal teams. They are sometimes based on personal relationships between members rather than on work roles. When you complete group work for assignments, you often choose the colleagues you wish to work with. You choose to work with people you like and ones you know will be as committed as you are to the work. This as an informal team. There are several theories of team structure and development, which will help you to understand the effectiveness of teams. Bruce Tuckman (1965) identified four main stages of team development: Forming – at this stage, team members from their first impressions of each other establish identities. They are sounding each other out and finding out what is expected of them.   Storming – the team members have, by now, become more used to each other. Members are prepared to put forward their ideas forcibly and openly; they are also prepared to disagree and so there may be some conflict and hostility. Norming – the team now begins to establish co-operation. Conflict is controlled, views are exchanged and new standards introduced.   Performing – the team is now working together; it begins to arrive at solutions and achieve objectives. There can also be fifth stage, called ‘adjourning’ or ‘mourning’, where the team has disbanded and the members miss being part of the team. Benefits of team work to colleagues and customers and organisation. The benefit of team work to colleagues is that they get to be confident and have a great self-esteem. Working together makes them communicate well with each other it also makes them makes the right decisions. British Airways staffs respects and trust their teams they all have their clear roles and responsibilities, they support each other in their job, when their team member does not know what they are doing they help one and other out. Their customers are always happy with their service and this gives their company a positive image. British Airways spend a lot of money training their staffs to help their team works together at the end of the day they make a lot of profits. Job roles and lines of responsibility: An organisation chart shows the structure of the company and how the work is divided into different areas. It also shows the lines of responsibility between staff, so that it is apparent who is responsible to whom. An employee studying a chart will find the possible promotion routes. The chart may show a hierarchical structure or line relationship. This is a very traditional structure and shows a chain of command with each person responsible to the person above them. It is sometimes referred to as a pyramid structure. Many organisations today would be depicted in a chart with a flatter structure. There are fewer layers of management, and each manager has a broader span of control. Restructuring of organisations often involves getting rid of middle managers, hence the flattened structure. P12: Evaluate the impact of technology in team functioning within a given organisation.   In this modern day and age the use of IT is very important because of modern technology, and this is also part of some peoples working lives. Same thing is applicable to travel and tourism sector. for most jobs or roles you would IT skills like the uses of databases, spreadsheets and email system and be able to use the word processor as well as skills explicit to a role. For example people working in an airline reservation team will get trained on how to make bookings and reservation systems such as Galileo or Amadeus. In a tourist information centre you would need to be able to access the sites and use the software that provides timetables and local information. Thomas Cook Thomas Cook has an intranet ‘Get in Touch’ facility, to which all staff have access. There is also a dedicated e-mail address for staff to send feedback direct to UK chief executive Manny Fontenla-Novoa. A spokeswoman added: â€Å"we issue an annual staff questionnaire to gain a temperature check on morale and motivation within the company’. Thomas Cook also runs panel sessions – made up of a cross-selection of the business – which are held regularly to provide feedback on new ideas and marketing initiatives. Other internal forms of communication include a quarterly magazine and monthly videos for stores. Electric: Electric communications for internal use include e-mail, which is a popular way for staff to communicate with one other, and intranets. An intranet is a website that has restricted access, usually for employees only. It may hold information that a company wishes to share internally but not externally. Working in a team will also motivate staff to interact and also learn skills off their peers because one person can represent more than one role, as most people have strengths in more than one area. References/Bibliography Management & Organisational behaviour by Laurie J. Mullins (Ninth edition)

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