Monday, August 24, 2020

Education Should be privatized as it is a privilege not a right Essay

Instruction Should be privatized as it is a benefit not a right - Essay Example Right off the bat, non-public schools offer quality and great training that meets the students’ needs in the general public. In contrast to state funded schools, tuition based schools have built up an individual way to deal with learning. Through this methodology, students have numerous advantages in connecting training requests and the activity showcase aptitudes. Meryzn and Ursprung (2005) note that the United States state funded schools have been a case of the financial matters of instruction on account of low quality that don't coordinate the monetary distribution by the legislature. The nature of training can be found in three methodologies. One is quality, this is instruction that is a customized, affordable and capable guarantees the necessities of understudies. It is training framework that can bode well in goals and the cultural requests. So as to accomplish these great objectives of training, a few researchers have said that privatization of instruction is a decent advance that will make great reason for instruction. Earthy colored (2013) Education ought not be viewed as a right, today there are numerous incredible business people and known athletes who have made a monstrous commitment to the economy without fundamentally going to schools (Davidsona 2010). As indicated by National Center for Education Statistics Report 2010 it distinguished numerous stidents in government funded schools as a major issue for the nature of training (Espiona and Gonzalez 2013). The report said that, tuition based schools have half of the state funded school populace. Schools and classes are littler in the private organization prompting individual instructing that contacts the study hall exercises. The educator understudy proportion is increasingly ideal, for the most part they have a quantities of 1:9 that permits monetary estimation of the guardians cash. Numerous open both essential and auxiliary schools have a proportion of 1:19, which means there is an intense lack, and the nature of instruction is very low (Brown 2013). Government funded schools keep on having a major number of understudies that don't learn because of the large numbers when contrasted with the instructors. These

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Blackbeard the Pirate Biography for Kids

Blackbeard the Pirate Biography for Kids Children are frequently inspired by privateers and need to know the historical backdrop of individuals, for example, Blackbeard. They may not be prepared for the grown-up form of theâ biography of Blackbeardâ but can have their inquiries replied in this rendition for youthful perusers. Who was Blackbeard? Blackbeard was a fearsome privateer who assaulted different people groups dispatches quite a while back, in the years 1717â€1718. He delighted in looking unnerving, making his long dark hair and facial hair smoke while he was battling. He passed on while battling ships sent to get him and take him to prison. Here are the responses to all your Blackbeard questions. Was Blackbeard his genuine name? His genuine name was Edward Thatch or Edward Teach. Privateers took epithets to conceal their genuine names. He was called Blackbeard in light of his long, dark facial hair. For what reason would he say he was a privateer? Blackbeard was a privateer since it was an approach to make a fortune. Life adrift was hard and unsafe for mariners in naval force or on dealer ships. It was enticing to take what you realized serving on those boats and join a privateer group where you would gain a portion of the fortune. At various occasions, a legislature would urge ships chiefs to be privateers and assault ships from different nations, however not theirs. These privateers may then start to go after any boats and become privateers. What did privateers do? Privateers cruised where they figured different boats would be. When they found another boat, they would raise their privateer banner and assault. As a rule, different ships just surrendered once they saw the banner to keep away from a battle and wounds. The privateers would then take everything the boat was conveying. What kind of stuff did privateers take? Privateers took whatever they could utilize or sell. On the off chance that a boat had guns or other great weapons, the privateers would take them. They took food and liquor. On the off chance that there was any gold or silver, they would take it. The boats they ransacked were normally shippers ships conveying load, for example, cocoa, tobacco, dairy animals stows away or material. On the off chance that the privateers figured they could sell the freight, they took it. Did Blackbeard abandon any lost fortune? Heaps of individuals think along these lines, yet most likely not. Privateers wanted to spend their gold and silver and not cover it some place. Likewise, the greater part of the fortune he took was load instead of coins and gems. He would sell the load and go through the cash. Who were some of Blackbeards companions? Blackbeard figured out how to be a privateer from Benjamin Hornigold, who provided him order of one of his privateer ships. Blackbeard helped Major Stede Bonnet, who didnt truly think a lot about being a privateer. Another companion was Charles Vane, who got a few opportunities to quit being a privateer yet he never took them. For what reason was Blackbeard so well known? Blackbeard was well known on the grounds that he was a frightening privateer. At the point when he realized he was going to assault someone’s transport, he put smoking wires in his long dark hair and facial hair. He additionally wore guns lashed to his body. A few mariners who saw him in fight really thought he was the fallen angel. Expression of him spread and individuals on both land and ocean were frightened of him. Did Blackbeard have a family? As indicated by Captain Charles Johnson, who inhabited a similar time as Blackbeard, he had 14 spouses. This presumably isn’t valid, yet it appears to be likely that Blackbeard got hitched at some point in 1718 in North Carolina. There is no record of him ever having any children. Did Blackbeard have a privateer banner and a privateer transport? Blackbeards privateer banner was dark with a white villain skeleton on it. The skeleton was holding a lance pointing at a red heart. He likewise had a celebrated boat called the Queen Annes Revenge. This forceful boat had 40 guns on it, making it one of the most perilous privateer sends ever. Did they ever get Blackbeard? Neighborhood pioneers frequently offered a compensation for the catch of celebrated privateers. Numerous men attempted to get Blackbeard, yet he was unreasonably shrewd for them and gotten away from catch commonly. To get him to stop, he was offered an exoneration and he acknowledged it. In any case, he came back to robbery How did Blackbeard bite the dust? At last, on November 22, 1718, privateer trackers found him close Ocracoke Island, off of North Carolina. Blackbeard and his men set up a significant battle, however at long last, they were totally slaughtered or captured. Blackbeard passed on in fight and his head was cut off so the privateer trackers could demonstrate they executed him. As indicated by an old story, his headless body swam around his boat multiple times. This was impractical yet added to his fearsome notoriety. Sources: Cordingly, David. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 1996 Defoe, Daniel (Captain Charles Johnson). A General History of the Pyrates. Altered by Manuel Schonhorn. Mineola: Dover Publications, 1972/1999. Konstam, Angus. The World Atlas of Pirates. Guilford: the Lyons Press, 2009 Woodard, Colin. The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the Caribbean Pirates and the Man Who Brought Them Down. Sailor Books, 2008.

Monday, July 20, 2020

History and Topics in the Field of Positive Psychology

History and Topics in the Field of Positive Psychology Theories Print The Field of Positive Psychology By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Updated on February 16, 2020 Peathegee Inc / Getty Images More in Theories Behavioral Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology In This Article Table of Contents Expand History Important People What It Is (and Isn't) Major Topics Research Findings Applications View All Back To Top Positive psychology is one of the newest branches of psychology to emerge. This particular area of psychology focuses on how to help human beings prosper and lead healthy, happy lives. While many other branches of psychology tend to focus on dysfunction and abnormal behavior, positive psychology is centered on helping people become happier. Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi describe positive psychology in the following way: We believe that a psychology of positive human functioning will arise that achieves a scientific understanding and effective interventions to build thriving in individuals, families, and communities.?? Over the last twenty years or so, general interest in positive psychology has grown tremendously. Today, more and more people are searching for information on how they can become more fulfilled and achieve their full potential. Interest in the topic has also increased on college campuses. In 2006, Harvards course on positive psychology became the universitys most popular class. In order to understand the field of positive psychology, it is essential to start by learning more about its history, major theories and applications. History Before World War II, psychology had three distinct missions: curing mental illness, making the lives of all people more productive and fulfilling, and identifying and nurturing high talent, wrote Seligman and Csikszenmihalyi in 2000.?? Shortly after WWII, the primary focus of psychology shifted to the first priority: treating abnormal behavior and mental illness. During the 1950s, humanist thinkers such as Carl Rogers, Erich Fromm, and Abraham Maslow helped renew interest in the other two areas by developing theories that focused on happiness and the positive aspects of human nature. In 1998, Seligman was elected President of the American Psychological Association and positive psychology became the theme of his term. Today, Seligman is widely viewed as the father of contemporary positive psychology. In 2002, the first International Conference on Positive Psychology was held. In 2009, the first World Congress on Positive Psychology took place in Philadelphia and featured talks by Martin Seligman and Philip Zimbardo. Important People in the Field Martin SeligmanMihaly CsikszentmihalyiChristopher PetersonCarol DweckDaniel GilbertKennon SheldonAlbert BanduraC.R. SnyderPhilip Zimbardo What It Is (and Isnt) In a 2008 article published by Psychology Today, the late Christopher Peterson, author of A Primer in Positive Psychology and professor at the University of Michigan, noted that it is essential to understand what positive psychology is as well as what it is not. Positive psychology is...a call for psychological science and practice to be as concerned with strength as with weakness; as interested in building the best things in life as in repairing the worst; and as concerned with making the lives of normal people fulfilling as with healing pathology, he writes.?? He cautioned, however, that positive psychology does not involve ignoring the very real problems that people face and that other areas of psychology strive to treat. The value of positive psychology is to complement and extend the problem-focused psychology that has been dominant for many decades, he explained.?? Major Topics Some of the major topics of interest in positive psychology include: Happiness??Optimism and helplessnessMindfulnessFlowCharacter strengths and virtuesHope??Positive thinkingResilience Research Findings Some of the major findings of positive psychology include: People are generally happy.Money doesnt necessarily buy well-being, but spending money on other people can make individuals happier.??Some of the best ways to combat disappointments and setbacks include strong social relationships and character strengths.Work can be important to well-being, especially when people are able to engage in work that is purposeful and meaningful.While happiness is influenced by genetics, people can learn to be happier by developing optimism, gratitude, and altruism.?? Applications Positive psychology can have a range of real-world applications in areas including education, therapy, self-help, stress management, and workplace issues.?? Using strategies from positive psychology, teachers, coaches, therapists, and employers can motivate others and help individuals understand and develop their personal strengths. The Differences Between Positive Psychology and Positive Thinking

Thursday, May 21, 2020

What Is Black Power

The term â€Å"Black Power† refers to both a political slogan popularized between the 1960s and the 1980s, as well as the various ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for black people. It was popularized within the United States, but the slogan, along with components of the Black Power Movement, has traveled abroad. Origins After the shooting of James Meredith in the March Against Fear, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (influential within the Civil Rights Movement) held a speech on June 16, 1966. In it, Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael) declared: This is the 27th time I have been arrested and I aint going to jail no more! The only way we gonna stop them white men from whuppin us is to take over. What we gonna start sayin now is Black Power! This was the first time Black Power had been used as a political slogan. Although the phrase is thought to have originated in Richard Wright’s 1954 book, â€Å"Black Power,† it was in Ture’s speech that â€Å"Black Power† emerged as a battle cry, an alternative to more tempered slogans like â€Å"Freedom Now!† employed by nonviolent groups like Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference. By 1966, many black people believed that the Civil Rights Movement’s focus on desegregation failed to examine how America had weakened and humiliated black people for generations  Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã‚  economically, socially, and culturally. Young black people, in particular, had become tired of the Civil Rights Movement’s slow pace. â€Å"Black Power† became symbolic of the new wave of the black freedom struggle that broke from earlier tactics focused on the church and King’s â€Å"beloved community.† Black Power Movement Malcolm X Bring about the freedom of these people by any means necessary. Thats our motto. We want freedom by any means necessary. We want justice by any means necessary. We want equality by any means necessary. The Black Power Movement began in the 1960s and continued throughout the 1980s. While the movement had multiple tactics, from non-violence to proactive defense, its purpose was to bring the ideological developments of Black Power to life. Activists focused on two main tenets: black autonomy and self-determination. The movement began in America, but the simplicity and universality of its slogan allowed it to be applied globally, from Somalia to Great Britain. The cornerstone of the Black Power Movement was the Black Panther Party for Self Defense. Founded in October of 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, the Black Panther Party was a revolutionary socialist organization. The Panthers were known for their Ten-Point Platform, the development of free breakfast programs (which were later taken by the government for the development of WIC), and their insistence on building black people’s ability to defend themselves. The party was heavily targeted by the FBI surveillance program COINTELPro, which led to the death or imprisonment of many black activists. While the Black Panther Party started with black men as heads of the movement and continued to struggle with misogynoir (misogyny directed at black women) throughout its existence, the women in the party were influential and made their voices heard on many issues. Notable activists in the Black Power Movement included Elaine Brown (the first Chairwoman of the Black Panther Party), Angela Davis (leader of the Communist Party USA), and Assata Shakur (a member of the Black Liberation Army). All three of these women were targeted by the United States government for their activism. While the Black Power Movement saw a decline in the late 1970s, due to the relentless persecution of those involved (such as Freddy Hampton), it has had a lasting impact on black American arts and culture. Black Power Definition in Arts and Culture Kwame Ture We have to stop being ashamed of being black. A broad nose, thick lip and nappy hair is us and we are going to call that beautiful whether they like it or not. Black Power was more than just a political slogan  Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã‚  it introduced a change in overall black culture. The â€Å"Black is Beautiful† movement replaced traditional black styles like suits and permed hair with new, unapologetically black styles, like full afros and the development of soul. The Black Arts Movement, founded in part by Amiri Baraka, promoted the autonomy of black people by urging them to create their own journals, magazines, and other written publications. Many women writers, such as Nikki Giovanni and Audre Lorde, contributed to the Black Arts Movement by exploring themes of black womanhood, love, urban struggle,  and sexuality in their work. The effects of Black Power as a political slogan, movement, and form of cultural expression lives on in the current Movement for Black Lives. Many of today’s black activists draw on the works and theories of Black Power activists, such as the Black Panther’s Ten-Point Platform to organize around ending police brutality. Sources Black Power Speech. Dictionary of American History, The Gale Group Inc., 2003.Gist, Brenda Lovelace. Eloquently Speaking. Xlibris, December 7, Editors. Civil rights activist James Meredith shot. History, AE Television Networks, LLC, July 27, 2019.Walker, Samuel. Black Power! A Slogan is Born. Today in Civil Liberties History, Samuel Walker, 2014.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Teams Are Essential To Success In Both Business And Many

Teams are essential to success in both business and many varied aspects of our personal and professional life. Proper team development is critical to ensuring that high performance teams, and understanding the process surrounding team development is critical for managers and leaders. In this essay, I will discuss the team development process by examining the five stages of team development, and provide personal examples of each of the stages with advantages and disadvantages in my personal experiences in a team environment while serving as part of an organizational re-design team. Teams are defined as small groups of individuals with particular skills that work together to achieve identified goals (Schermerhorn Bachrach, 2015).†¦show more content†¦The team members asked to participate made logical sense as their divisions were critical to organizational change, and would be directly impacted by the team recommendation. In the same initial meeting, however, a disadvantag e was individuals who were not critical to the project came to the meeting and attempted to join the team without invitation. This resulted in those individuals being thanked for their interest, but being told that their participation was not required or desired for the team. The catalyst for this action was the elimination of non-essential team members and the imminent distraction their interests would impose on the team. This action during the forming stage ensured that the team was built of the essential members necessary to participate on the team, while ensuring the team was structured to focus only on the directed goals and objectives of the team. As a leader, I would ensure that team member recruiting and sourcing is deliberate, and that team member guidance is specific on who is being sourced to join the team. The second stage of the team development process is the storming phase. During the storming phase, personal or organizational interests, agendas, and personalitie s are introduced into the team (Schermerhorn Bachrach, 2015). During this phase, tension, hostility, anger, and infighting among theShow MoreRelatedEssay on Project Management1464 Words   |  6 Pagesmanagement is an essential part of the work environment and its purpose within business, academic backgrounds and research are crucial to the development of solutions and products that enable a company to be successful. The idea of project management is quite simple; a group of people are detached from the company and given a goal to focus their efforts on. The size of the group is entirely dependant on the size of the company. When looking to put together a project management team, there are twoRead MoreThe Issue Of Managing Organizational Change1335 Words   |  6 Pagesoperational strategies and structures reflect business realities based on previous researches. 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Causes of the Decline and Fall of the Western Roman Empire Free Essays

The fall of the Roman Empire was inevitable by A. D. 476. We will write a custom essay sample on Causes of the Decline and Fall of the Western Roman Empire or any similar topic only for you Order Now Christianity had weakened the bonds that had held it together, the people became corrupt, and it got too big. It was also because of the barbarian attacks. All empires eventually fall and Rome’s time had come to an end. When discussing the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire one has to see that this occurred over many years and had many different facets. Each issue has to be addressed independently with the understanding that they simultaneously combined to the dissension within the Empire and the falling of the borders that had been established during its height. By the end of the second century AD, the empire encompassed most of the Mediterranean, including Spain, France, most of Britain, Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East, Egypt, and Northern Africa. The collapse of the Roman Empire was a calamity; it leads to the Dark (Middle) Ages. Seeing all the bad that came of it, the destruction of art, the collapse of great cities, the deterioration of the system of roads, the ruin of the Mediterranean trade, and the loss of European unity–it’s difficult to imagine any good came of it. But some good did result. The break up of the empire led to the abolition of slavery in Europe. Of course, this, in turn, led to more poverty and the increase of latifundia because the poor people lost their land to the aristocrats. But the slaves were better off as peasants than as slaves. Christianity was a major cause of the fall of Rome. Although Rome had religious tolerance, Romans, especially Jews, didn’t accept Christianity. A lot of people converted to Christianity because they lost faith in the Romans. At first most Christians were Jews but less strict. Many values were different but they still followed Jewish dietary laws and shared many beliefs with the Jews. The early Christians also got circumcised. Even Jesus got circumcised because he was born a Jew. Then he thought he was God’s messenger but many other people during that time also thought that so most people started off not believing him. The Christians started adopting the values that they have today during the time that Saul/Paul was alive. At first he started off as a Jew who hated Jesus and hated the Christians but then he converted and traveled around spreading the thoughts of Christians but he said that Christians didn’t need to follow the Jewish dietary laws and they didn’t need to get circumcised. The Romans and the Jews didn’t like the message that Jesus was spreading so they crucified him. One impact that Jesus had was that more people didn’t want to join the military and they didn’t want to participate in the community. Since the people stopped participating in government and they didn’t join the army, the Roman army composed of the Barbarians from Germany. These Barbarians lead disorganized attacks and even attacked other Roman Barbarian groups. Because of these sloppy attacks, Rome’s army fell and it was no longer the military superpower it was before. Also, many of the lands that Rome had conquered wanted independence and broke free of the Roman Empire. Herbert J. Muller argues in his book Uses of the Past that Rome got rich by conquering new lands and because of trade with new markets and when the Barbarian attacks went unsuccessful they got no more land therefore losing their source of wealth. Edward Gibbon argues the opposite in his book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He says that the Roman Empire fell because it was too widespread. He says that there was too much land for the government to govern and because of that the government lost money. By the end of the Roman Empire it was widespread and had many land. By conquering these lands they got many slaves from war and from these new lands. The abundance of slaves lead to the growth of latifundia, large estates owned by the rich. These slaves were willing to work hard for little pay so the rich got richer and the poor grew poorer. The poor coloni [farmers] lost their lands and the aristocrats bought them out. Then the poor farmers went to the city and became dependent on handouts from the government such as free grain. There were many causes for the fall of the Roman Empire. Some causes were the rise of Christianity, the fall of the army, the abundance of slaves and the size of the empire. Because of all these reasons and many more Rome couldn’t survive which lead to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman empire survived and became the Byzantine Empire. Rome’s fall lead to the Dark Ages but Rome has an impact in our everyday culture because they influenced the Greeks of whose culture we have copied in order to build our own culture. How to cite Causes of the Decline and Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The idea of investigating Essay Example

The idea of investigating Essay The idea of investigating how the human mind perceives colored words is one of those aspects of life that most of us take for granted. In 1935, J. Ridley Stroop performed a series of experiments to examine this phenomenon. In his article, Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions Stroop explained that conflicting color and word stimuli resulted in a phenomenon he described as interference. Because Stroops experiments only demonstrated this effect when participants were asked to name the color of a word with a conflicting meaning stimulus, he determined that the interference was a result of automatic retrieval in reading. My experiment will attempt to replicate the second experiment that Stroop performed during his original study. The aim of this experiment is to determine if automatic retrieval in reading interferes with a participants ability to identify the color of the word displayed. My experiment followed the repeated measures design. I used one group of participants and testeed them in both the experimental and the control condition. Through this method the confounding variable of participant variability was avoided. As the same group experienced the experimental and control variable, any differences must have been a result of the variables and not differences in the participants themselves. A possible disadvantage to the repeated measures design is the order effect, differences exhibited by participants could be due to the order that the experimental and control conditions are presented. To counterbalance the order effect I separated participants into two randomly selected groups, Group A experienced the control variable first and the experimental variable second, while the Group B was exposed to the experimental design first and the control variable second. It was essential to randomly allocate the participants into their groups to maintain the integrity of t he experiment. I flipped a coin to determine if the participant would be in Group A or Group B. We will write a custom essay sample on The idea of investigating specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The idea of investigating specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The idea of investigating specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The independent variable in this design was the presence of a conflicting color name in the stimulus. The measured dependent variable was the amount of time it took to identify the color of the stimulus. The control condition provided the participants with twenty blocks of color to verbally identify; their response time was measured in seconds and hundredths of seconds. The experimental condition provided the participants with twenty words with conflicting color names and word colors, for example, the word white written in green ink. The participants response time was measured in seconds and hundredths of seconds. Participants response times were recorded under numbers rather than names, in this manner the privacy and confidentiality of the participant was protected. All individuals who wished to participate in the study were required to sign an informed conset form. In order to maintain the single blind aspect of the study the participants were be informed of the true purpose of the experiment before participation, however all participants were debriefed after their participation. Additionally, the participants received a copy of the results of the experiments. The experiment does not involve any physical discomfort, and very minimal mental stress. PARTICIPANTS The participants in the experiment came from the student body of Upper St. Clair High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The school is located in a suburban community, and a majority of the population are upper-middle class Caucasian individuals. Hence the results can not be generalized across any demographic group except the one represented by the students. The results of the study were influenced by volunteer bias. Additionally, only the population who were free, at the time the experiment was conducted, were able to participate. Also, all the participants were required to be over the age of sixteen, thus eliminating half of the student population of the high school. Finally, since the test relied upon color recognition those individual with color blindness were unable to participate. Eventually, fifteen individuals participated in the study. Twelve of those fifteen were female. Although there was an unequal gender distribution in the sample group, the experiment does not investig ate gender issues. Additionally, since the participants were all high school students, their ages ranged from sixteen to eighteen. MATERIALS The experiment required * SHEET A -( 20 colored blocks) ~ Appendix Page 1 * SHEET B (20 colored words) ~ Appendix Page 2 * Key (Correct Answers to both Sheet A and B) ~ Appendix Page 3 * Standardized Instructions ~ Appendix Page 4 * Sample Sheet ~ Appendix Page 5 * Informed Conset Statement ~ Appendix Page 6 * Standard Debriefing Statement ~ Appendix Page 7 * An accurate digital timer PROCEDURES I felt that it was essential for me to understand the experiment which I was replicating. Obtaining the original article which Stroop published in Journal of Experimental Psychology was invaluable. In order to create my own materials, I relied upon the experimental methodology literature provided in my texts as well as my background research. Essentially, I created methods analogous to those used by Stroop in the second of his three experiments. In order to garner volunteers for my experiment, we placed an invitation the morning announcements. Additionally, my psychology teacher requested students in her other classes to participate in the experiment. I conducted the experiment upon an individual basis. I requested that all participants remain outside the room and called in each participant one at a time. Before they entered the room, I flipped a coin to determine if they were to be in Group A or Group B. Upon entering, I asked them to take a seat, read the informed consent statement, and sign it if they agreed to all the conditions. Then I read the introductory portion of my standardized instructions. I then gave the participant either Sheet A or B, depending on which group they were in. As the participant verbally identified the color of the stimulus, I visually checked their answers with a previously prepared key. I then read the second portion of the instructions to them, and handed them the other sheet. Again, as the participant verbally identified the color of the stimulus, I visually checked their answers with a previously prepared key. Finally, I debriefed the participants with the standard debriefing statement.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Fallacies Straw Man Arguments

Fallacies Straw Man Arguments Fallacies: Straw Man Arguments Sadly, straw man arguments do not involve literal scarecrows. Rather, they are a type of fallacy: i.e., an argument that sounds convincing but contains hidden mistakes. But what exactly does a straw man argument involve? And how can you avoid them in your written work? What Is a Straw Man Argument? Could you beat this guy in an argument? Building a â€Å"straw man† implies constructing an idea that is easy to argue against rather than engaging with the real issue. This typically involves distorting your opponent’s ideas or beliefs to make it easier to refute them (even if you’re not â€Å"refuting† their actual arguments). For example, imagine an argument between Cheryl and Bob: Cheryl: Parents have a responsibility to expose their kids to learning at home as well as at school. Bob: Pedagogical theories that claim children don’t benefit from school are no use to anyone. Bob’s argument here is a â€Å"straw man† because he has misinterpreted what Cheryl was saying. And instead of responding to her suggestion that education can occur outside the classroom, he is arguing against something she never said: that children don’t benefit from school. Most straw man arguments are subtler than this. But they all involve misrepresenting someone to make it easier to win an argument. How to Avoid Straw Man Arguments It is possible to make a straw man argument without realizing it. This can happen, for example, if we don’t fully understand something that we are arguing about in a college paper. As such, to avoid this fallacy in your work, you should always: Read your source closely. And when you’ve read it once, re-read it so you have a full understanding of what the author is saying. Keep close track of your sources and cite them clearly. This will ensure you’re always engaging closely with the person you’re arguing against. Be charitable when interpreting your opponent’s arguments. Are you sure they mean what you think they mean? What else could they be saying? Look for sources that defend the position you’re arguing against. If they make good points, acknowledge and engage with these ideas in your work. Remember you’re trying to find the truth. If you need to distort someone’s ideas to beat them in an argument, you’re missing the point! With the above in mind, you should be able to avoid making straw man arguments. And if you’d like help expressing yourself clearly, don’t forget to get your work proofread.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Operation Pastorius - World War II German Operation Pastorius

Operation Pastorius - World War II German Operation Pastorius Operation Pastorius Background: With the American entry into World War II in late 1941, German authorities began planning to land agents in the United States to collect intelligence and carry out attacks against industrial targets. Organization of these activities was delegated to the Abwehr, Germanys intelligence agency, which was headed by Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. Direct control of the American operations was given to William Kappe, a long-time Nazi who had lived in the United States for twelve years. Canaris named the American effort Operation Pastorius after Francis Pastorius who led the first German settlement in North America. Preparations: Utilizing the records of the Ausland Institute, a group that had facilitated the return of thousands of Germans from America in the years before the war, Kappe selected twelve men with blue-collar backgrounds, including two who were naturalized citizens, to begin training at the Abwehrs sabotage school near Brandenburg. Four men were quickly dropped from the program, while the remaining eight were divided into two teams under the leadership of George John Dasch and Edward Kerling. Commencing training in April 1942, they received their assignments the following month. Dasch was to lead Ernst Burger, Heinrich Heinck, and Richard Quirin in attacking the hydroelectric plants at Niagara Falls, a cryolite plant in Philadelphia, canal locks on the Ohio River, as well as Aluminum Company of America factories in New York, Illinois, and Tennessee. Kerlings team of Hermann Neubauer, Herbert Haupt, and Werner Thiel were designated to strike the water system in New York City, a railroad station in Newark, Horseshoe Bend near Altoona, PA, as well as canal locks at St. Louis and Cincinnati. The teams planned to rendezvous at Cincinnati on July 4, 1942. Operation Pastorius Landings: Issued explosives and American money, the two teams traveled to Brest, France for transport by U-boat to the United States. Embarking aboard U-584, Kerlings team departed on May 25 for Ponte Vedra Beach, FL, while Daschs team sailed for Long Island aboard U-202 the next day. Arriving first, Daschs team landed on the night of June 13. Coming ashore on a beach near Amagansett, NY, they wore German uniforms to avoid being shot as spies if captured during the landing. Reaching the beach, Daschs men began burying their explosives and other supplies. While his men were changing into civilian clothes, a patrolling Coast Guardsman, Seaman John Cullen, approached the party. Advancing to meet him, Dasch lied and told Cullen that his men were stranded fisherman from Southampton. When Dasch refused an offer to spend the night at the nearby Coast Guard Station, Cullen became suspicious. This was reinforced when one of Daschs men shouted something in German. Realizing that his cover was blown, Dasch attempted to bribe Cullen. Knowing he was outnumbered, Cullen took the money and fled back to the station. Alerting his commanding officer and turning in the money, Cullen and other raced back to the beach. While Daschs men had fled, they saw U-202 departing in the fog. A brief search that morning unearthed the German supplies which had been buried in the sand. The Coast Guard informed the FBI about the incident and Director J. Edgar Hoover imposed a news blackout and commenced a massive manhunt. Unfortunately, Daschs men had already reached New York City and easily evaded the FBIs efforts to locate them. On June 16, Kerlings team landed in Florida without incident and began moving to complete their mission. The Mission Betrayed: Reaching New York, Daschs team took rooms in a hotel and purchased additional civilian clothing. At this point Dasch, aware that Burger had spent seventeen months in a concentration camp, called his comrade for a private meeting. At this gathering, Dasch informed Burger that he disliked the Nazis and intended to betray the mission to the FBI. Before doing so, he wanted Burgers support and backing. Burger informed Dasch that he too had planned to sabotage the operation. Having come to an accord, they decided that Dasch would go to Washington while Burger would remain in New York to oversee Heinck and Quirin. Arriving in Washington, Dasch was initially dismissed by several offices as a crackpot. He was finally taken seriously when he dumped $84,000 of the missions money on the desk of Assistant Director D.M. Ladd. Immediately detained, he was interrogated and debriefed for thirteen hours while a team in New York moved to capture the rest of his team. Dasch cooperated with the authorities, but was unable to provide much information regarding the whereabouts of Kerlings team other than stating they were due to meet in Cincinnati on July 4. He was also able to provide the FBI with a list of German contacts in the United States which had been written in invisible ink on a handkerchief issued to him by the Abwehr. Utilizing this information, the FBI was able to track down Kerlings men and took them into custody. With the plot foiled, Dasch expected to receive a pardon but instead was treated the same as the others. As a result, he asked to be jailed with them so they would not know who betrayed the mission. Trial Execution: Fearful that a civilian court would be too lenient, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered that the eight would-be saboteurs be tried by a military tribunal, the first held since the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Placed before a seven-member commission, the Germans were accused of: Violating the law of warViolating Article 81 of the Articles of War, defining the offense of corresponding with or giving intelligence to the enemyViolating Article 82 of the Articles of War, defining the offense of spyingConspiracy to commit the offenses alleged in the first three charges Though their lawyers, including Lauson Stone and Kenneth Royall, attempted to have the case moved to a civilian court, their efforts were in vain. The trial moved forward in the Department of Justice Building in Washington that July. All eight were found guilty and sentenced to death. For their assistance in foiling the plot, Dasch and Burger had their sentences commuted by Roosevelt and were given 30 years and life in prison respectively. In 1948, President Harry Truman showed both men clemency and had them deported to the American Zone of occupied Germany. The remaining six were electrocuted at the District Jail in Washington on August 8, 1942. Selected Sources Special OperationsHistoryNet: German Saboteurs Invade America in 1942FBI: George John Dasch the Nazi Saboteurs

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Pick a time in your life that was greatly significant to you, one that Essay

Pick a time in your life that was greatly significant to you, one that marked a change in your life and perspective and one tha - Essay Example This mass shooting incident churned my insides because for the first time I experienced the meaning of death and the sense of loss executed by it. Before that ominous day of December, I attached no value to the idea of life being a hotheaded nonconformist that I was. I was engaged in an endless search for happiness and sense of purpose. That search took me to different places but I never got any answer. But after 14th December 2012, I realized that sometimes answers to fundamentally important questions of life can be embedded in witnessing the tragic demise of someone you dearly love. Yes, that is true. I realized the importance of my life after experiencing the tragic death of someone I had stayed close to for 5 long years. The person who died after the mass shooting occurred at the hospital because of fatal wounds was the little brother of my dearest friend. It seems like I have known this family forever and after I arrived in the US from Asia about 6 years ago, my friend’s family has been my family in its most literal sense. I have known these people forever and I adore them as fiercely as my own family. In my friend’s mother, I see the unbelievable generosity of my mother and in his little brother’s innocent tricks, I used to witness the youthful cheekiness of my own little brother living in Asia. I several times played the role of a big brother for that little man accompanying him to super stores whenever my friend was unavailable or assisting him in other chores. When I first heard the news of the tragic incident, I was sitting hopelessly bored at a cafe thinking about what interesting task could I engage in to make my life a little worthwhile. After I was told that my friend’s little brother had also got severely wounded amidst shooting, I acutely remember the whole scene literally darkened for some moments. And after his death, everything happened so quickly, watching my friend and his mother shell-shocked over their irrecove rable loss inculcated an overpowering respect for life in my heart in that same instant. I acknowledged the unique power of life and dark loss of death due to that unfortunate social event which depressed the entire society beyond possibility and is still making headlines. That event changed me as a person forever. Before that, I had minimal respect for life and the associations shared by me with significant others struck no chord in my heart for long. Now, I have a thriving passion for life and essentially attach considerable importance to every moment I spend with the people I love because one never knows what tomorrow might bring. That time of my life also compelled me to think about certain serious issues of the society in which I had no interest before due to lack of awareness. But, such an intense experience helped me to understand the validity of the anti-gun sentiments in the US. Considering myriad lives and families destroyed by such deadly mass shootings, I believe now tha t every college’s administration in every state should go all the way through to prohibit students from bringing guns. My perspective about the whole issue is also same as that of the majority’s according to which guns simply do not belong in a college classroom. Research also stresses that gun control is strongly related to sound societal values (Wilson 9) and inability of colleges to become major front in fight over carrying

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Position Paper - Death Penalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Position Paper - Death Penalty - Essay Example Death penalty has been present ever since the societal shift from being primitive communal to the slave society state wherein civilizations were formed and rulers were made. The death penalty was implemented by the earliest civilizations yet there were no formal records of a death sentence being served. According to the Web site, death penalty has very old roots; in fact, there is evidence of its application even in peoples such as Babylonians, ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. (). The earliest recorded death sentence according to the Web site was in the 16th century when a member of the Egyptian nobility was accused of magic, and was ordered to take his own life. (). Through the ages death penalty was implemented, it was only the manner of which it was executed and of how it was perceived changed through time, the manner changed from the guillotine and hanging through the firing squad and lethal injection, a brief history of how death penalty w as done and the violations which led to a death sentence is presented in the Web site () It was only since after World War II, that there has been a consistent trend in abolishing the death penalty. (â€Å"Death Penalty Worldwide†,, ). Political as well has humane considerations have been taken into account in the abolition of death penalty as a punishment for some crimes. Since the start of abolition, the number of death penalty sentences served curved down, although capital punishment was still retained in other countries, most of these countries are those with religious considerations. The Instruments of death were also changed, some were more harsh than others, in some countries morbid methods

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Narration and Perspective in Pramoedyas Inem Essay -- Asia Narrative

Narration and Perspective in Pramoedya's Inem Tradition represents an integral component of one's cultural identity, and this is especially so in this rapidly changing world which we live in, where the boundaries between different cultures are increasingly being blurred and distorted by the process of globalisation. While traditions do define the beliefs, practices and collective experiences of a people, the continued existence of certain socio-cultural institutions in which discriminatory and repressive measures still persist cannot be condoned. It is this very dimension that Pramoedya addresses in his short story, "Inem": The narrator's reminiscences of his childhood perform a serious social commentary and incisive social critique of various repressive traditional institutions in Indonesian society, such as the practice of child-brides (i.e. the forced socialisation of children), as well as the intransigent nature of prevailing patriarchal attitudes towards women and subsequent treatment they receive in the author's socio-cult ural milieu. The story achieves, albeit subtly, a powerful condemnation of these facets, which is presented artfully through a duality in the narration - a child's naà ¯ve perspective and circumscribed knowledge to describe the course of events as they happened, alongside the mature, retrospective voice, which also provides a highly mimetic depiction of life in this society. It might be pertinent and helpful here to first discuss the structure of the narrative itself, for there are several elements in the sequencing of the discourse that contribute in no small way to the overall effect of the narration/narrator. The narrative begins in media res (beginning in the midst of the action at a crucial junct... ...d in the narration. This is ultimately left to the sub-text, of what is left unsaid. It is quite clear where the author stands on the issues the short story raises, and through the naà ¯vetà © in the children's perspective presented in the narrator's recollections, an intense and vivid resemblance to reality in this very retrospection, and the narrative sequencing that remorselessly directs the story towards the concluding tragedy - a powerful and scathing, if not sober, social critique on the nature of tradition, adhering to correct social behaviour and resistance to change is shaped and conveyed. Bibliography Chatman, Seymour. "Narration: Narrator and Narratee". Reading Narrative Fiction. New York: Macmillan, 1993. 90-97. Pramoedya Ananta Toer. "Inem". Contemporary Literature of Asia. Arthur Biddle et al (ed.) Blair: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1996. 139-148.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Should the Barnardo’s Silver Spoon advertisement campaign have been banned?

A study of an advertising campaign and the ethical issues involved. Media influence refers to the impact of mass media, it has the ability to shape our society's way of thinking and it has the power to send a strong and influential message to its audience. Advertising media is a form of communication whose purpose is to promote a particular product or service. The message that these adverts send off are not always positive so therefore, certain regulatory authorities are there to counteract this negative influence. In the UK, the content of advertisements are regulated by the ASA (Advertising Standards Authority) and they have the authority to ban any adverts that are harmful, misleading or offensive. In winter 2003, Barnardo's launched their â€Å"Silver spoons† campaign against poverty but within three months, the campaign was banned. Barnardo's is a British Charity found by Thomas John Barnardo in 1866. Barnardo's purpose is to care for the abused, the vulnerable, the forgotten and the neglected. They believe that every child deserves to be given an opportunity to fulfil their potential and live a worthwhile, blissful life. The purpose of Barnardo's â€Å"Silver Spoon† campaign was to draw attention to child poverty and hopefully be able to raise a significant amount to eliminate child poverty. They used shocking images of new born babies, hoping to shock the target audience into donating to their charity. The reason Barnardo's felt it was necessary to produce such controversial adverts was because of a poll they carried out, 86% of people questioned did not realise that one in three of the UK's children are born into poverty. Barnardo's felt that actions had to be taken to raise awareness of this fact. The advertisements feature a cockroach, a bottle of methylated spirit and a syringe protruding from the babies' mouths. The babies in the first three adverts look distressed and alongside the images is text explaining the situation of child poverty in the UK. One of the images features a new born baby named Mary, very yellow in colour; entirely covered in body fluid with a half empty syringe forced into her mouth. The yellowness of Mary's skin indicates poor health and infirmity; perhaps she is not fed properly, not cared properly. The audience learn that this child is born in a hospital because of the hospital band tied onto its wrist. The fact that the baby is still covered in body fluid implies lack of care and nurture. The half empty syringe protruding from Mary's mouth indicates that she has already been doomed to a life of drug abuse, immediately taking away the innocence of the child. Mary is crying shows that she does not want this to happen but â€Å"thanks to poverty† this is a future that has been predestined and she alone is powerless to change. The fact that the baby is in such a vulnerable position, clenching its fist with its arms placed by its side indicates that she is opened up and exposed to the horrors of poverty. The fact that Mary has tilted her head to the side crying reinforces the fact that she is weak and does not want to face the future poverty has destroyed. The main purpose of this shocking image is to trigger curiosity and â€Å"shock† the audience into reading the text alongside the image. The text is very skilful and contains a lot of underlying emotion. Through one small paragraph, we see the presence of numerous literary devices which makes the advert much more persuasive and effective. The headline â€Å"There are no silver spoons for children born into poverty† relies on the old English proverb â€Å"born with a silver spoon in your mouth† meaning to be born into a life of opportunity and prosperity, assuming the audience would know the meaning of the proverb. Through this we learn that the campaign is targeted at middle aged, middle/upperclassmen, as they are much likely to be the ones who would understand the meaning of the proverb. This metaphor is used to point out that not every child is fortunate enough to be born with a â€Å"silver spoon† and children are not born with equal opportunities. The naming of the child is very effective, not â€Å"the baby† but â€Å"Baby Mary†. This gives the child back its innocence the image has taken away. Naming the child has the effect of making everything appear very genuine and personal. The purpose of this is to make the audience emotionally drawn into the advert and sympathise for the children who are born into poverty. And hopefully, donate to the charity. Baby Mary is three minutes old. Thanks to Poverty she faces a desperate future†, already poverty has predetermined her life for her. This emphasizes the impact of poverty, informing the audience what poverty is capable of destroying. Notice that â€Å"Poverty† in the text begins with a capital letter; this personifies poverty, as if poverty is a being, a monster that is ready to pou nce, to leap, to attack. This is very effective when trying to convey that poverty is going to be responsible for the baby's hopeless future, as personifying poverty tells you that poverty is the one to blame. Poverty is waiting to destroy Mary's hope and ambition and is likely to lead her to a future of drug abuse. † Abstract nouns such as â€Å"hope† and â€Å"ambition† were used, â€Å"hope† and â€Å"ambition† are possessions everyone should have; it is not an object or luxury that only some could afford. It is something that everyone deserves, you do not have to be wealthy to have hope and you certainly don't need wealth to be ambitious! By telling the audience that poverty has stolen these away from a newborn child emphasizes the power of poverty by illustrating what poverty is capable of doing. However, this can be very misleading as it gives the audience a negative impression of what it means to be poor. Within three months, the ASA received around five hundred complaints about the content of the adverts being very misleading and offensive. In December 2003, the campaign was withdrawn. In response to the numerous complaints made against the first three adverts, Barnardo's released a less offensive and less controversial advert, but equally hard hitting and effective. The new advert features a new born child, with a silver spoon placed in its mouth. This refers to the same proverb as the past three adverts, â€Å"born with a silver spoon in your mouth†, thus makes association and reminds the audience of the previous ads. The shining silver spoon carefully placed in this baby's mouth juxtaposes the dangerous, unpleasant objects forced in the other babies' mouths. This makes the audience stop, wait and think about the message of the ads. The silver spoon signifies a life of opportunity and prosperity. The use of high key lighting, baby bathed in golden light, signifies wealth and power and also an environment of peace and serenity. Baby sleeping on a cushion-like surface signifies a comfortable and easy life. This is very different to the previous adverts, where the babies were left on plain white blanket. The fact that this baby's eyes are placid and wide open suggests that it's looking forward to its bright future. Whereas, the babies in the other adverts looks distressed and not at ease. The audience sees this baby from a birds eye view; this suggests that there is someone watching over, like a parent nurturing a child. This signifies the warmth and love the babies in the previous adverts did not appear to have. The pictures of the babies in the previous adverts were taken from an angle looking at the baby from the side; this signifies lack of care and abundance. The headline â€Å"If only every child was born with a silver spoon† is the objective Barnardo's is trying to achieve. To make sure that every child gets â€Å"the best start in life, and the chance to fulfil their potential†. The repetition of the phrase â€Å"if only† emphasizes the fact that Barnardo's objective has not yet been accomplished and is significant because it signifies that something can be done to make this happen. The silver spoons campaign was designed to reduce the impact of poverty on children to the minimum. The adverts are trying to convey that â€Å"children born in poverty are more likely to suffer ill-health, be unemployed or homeless and to become involved in offending, drug, and alcohol abuse and abusive relationships in adulthood. † The reason Barnardo's felt it was necessary to produce such controversial adverts was because of a poll they carried out, 86% of people questioned did not realise that one in three of the UK's children are born into poverty. Barnardo's felt that actions had to be taken to raise awareness of this fact. The morning the first adverts were released, the ASA received 92 complaints and immediately launched an urgent investigation. Many felt that the images of the adverts were very shocking and offensive because it gives the public a false impression of what it's like being poor. The adverts showing poverty, portrays a child who lacks care and support. Parents who are poor can still love and care for their child, being poor does not mean that you do not care about your child. One of the reasons why individuals found this advert so offensive was because it was stereotyping the poor. However, statistics show that children who are born in poverty are more likely to under perform in school and live in a high crime-rate area. So therefore they are more likely be victims of crime or associate with criminals. Although this is proven correct by statistics, it is more like a fact the certain individuals find hard to accept and want to forget about. The purpose of these shocking images is to force those people back to reality and compel them to do something about it. After three months since the ad's first release, it was banned by the ASA. This campaign cost one million pounds, but only lasted three months. There are many arguments against the ban, one of them being that the advert has been very successful in informing the public about child poverty. â€Å"People are now more aware that child poverty exists in the UK and are aware it is the biggest threat to childhood. † The numbers of donations received through the Barnardo's website are six times higher than usual. This shows that the advert was very effective and helped to make a real difference by improving the lives of children living in poverty. The advert has met the demands of being honest, truthful and legal. It has been tested with an agency affliated with the ASA before being released, and was passed. This indicates that the ad did not violate any laws or legislations, therefore it was considered appropriate for the public's viewing. This means that the main reason why it was banned was because certain individuals found the advert's pessimistic nature very disturbing and offensive. The fact that these adverts were released just before Christmas 2003 may be one of the reasons why people refused to accept it. Christmas is the time of year where people over indulge and so they often don't want to think about the existence of poverty because it makes them feel guilty spending so much money on things they often do not need. They do not want to be pestered by their own guilt, so therefore they prefer to ignore reality. To conclude, I think that the Barnardo's first three adverts should not have been banned. This is because the media today constantly reports poverty in third world countries that it shapes us into thinking that poverty only exists there and not here. The number of people in poverty in this country is very high and is extremely shocking because the UK is one of the most well developed countries in the world, yet many people are so poor. Research shows that one in every three children in the UK are born into poverty, but 86% of those questioned were unaware of this fact. This means that an advert that is powerful, shocking and grasping like Barnardo's â€Å"Silver spoons† is necessary to inform the public about the situation of child poverty in the UK and what we could do to help. I think that the adverts should not be banned because its effective in capturing attention and persuade people to donate. The ad successfully helped to make a difference by increasing the number of donations and thus improving the lives of children living in poverty. However, I cannot force myself to agree that a child who is born into poverty would definitely lead a life of extreme acoholism, drugs and squalor. I think that it really is down to the influence of parents, teachers and peers to shape a child's mind and future and not their family's financial status.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Legalization Of Physician Assisted Death - 1173 Words

The idea of committing euthanasia and physician- assisted suicide (PAS) had a historical root in the nineteenth century and referred as skillful alleviation of suffering1 in Latin transcripts. Recently the theme of the legalization of physician-assisted death (PAD) in Canada boosted in 2012. The decision of the British Columbia Supreme Court in the case of Carter v. Canada (Attorney General) was the threshold of the theme. It ruled that the Canadian Criminal Code 2 prohibition against PAD was discriminatory. According to the decision, the section 241 of the Code abuses the section of 12 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The adjudication is being finalized by the Supreme Court of Canada in 2015 by granting a†¦show more content†¦In term of jurisprudence, assuming the legalization of euthanasia and PAD based on the court s decision in Carter v. Canada has no legal ground. First of all, there is a new law only regarding PAD, whereas there is nothing about euthanas ia. Secondly, euthanasia and PAD are two different legal terms. In brief, â€Å"euthanasia means the deliberate act undertaken by one person with the intention of ending the life of another person to relieve that person s suffering†, according to the Canadian Senate 1995 report 3. In PAS, a physician, at the request of a competent patient, prescribe a lethal quantity of medication, intending that the patient will use the medicals to commit suicide 4. Thirdly, according to section 241 of the Canadian Criminal Code, there is a punishment for a doctor who assists a person to commit suicide. This sentencing revised through a decision from the Supreme Court of Canada that declared it should discriminate. In fact, derogating section 241 of the Canadian Criminal Code regarding the prohibition of PAD is vastly different from legalizing euthanasia or PAD. The Supreme Court of Canada in Carter v. Canada case provided: ...we should issue the following declaration: Section 241 and s.14 of the Criminal Code unjustifiably infringe s.7 of the Charter and are no force or effect to the extent that they prohibit physician-assisted death for a competent adult person who (1)