Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Fallacies Straw Man Arguments

Fallacies Straw Man Arguments Fallacies: Straw Man Arguments Sadly, straw man arguments do not involve literal scarecrows. Rather, they are a type of fallacy: i.e., an argument that sounds convincing but contains hidden mistakes. But what exactly does a straw man argument involve? And how can you avoid them in your written work? What Is a Straw Man Argument? Could you beat this guy in an argument? Building a â€Å"straw man† implies constructing an idea that is easy to argue against rather than engaging with the real issue. This typically involves distorting your opponent’s ideas or beliefs to make it easier to refute them (even if you’re not â€Å"refuting† their actual arguments). For example, imagine an argument between Cheryl and Bob: Cheryl: Parents have a responsibility to expose their kids to learning at home as well as at school. Bob: Pedagogical theories that claim children don’t benefit from school are no use to anyone. Bob’s argument here is a â€Å"straw man† because he has misinterpreted what Cheryl was saying. And instead of responding to her suggestion that education can occur outside the classroom, he is arguing against something she never said: that children don’t benefit from school. Most straw man arguments are subtler than this. But they all involve misrepresenting someone to make it easier to win an argument. How to Avoid Straw Man Arguments It is possible to make a straw man argument without realizing it. This can happen, for example, if we don’t fully understand something that we are arguing about in a college paper. As such, to avoid this fallacy in your work, you should always: Read your source closely. And when you’ve read it once, re-read it so you have a full understanding of what the author is saying. Keep close track of your sources and cite them clearly. This will ensure you’re always engaging closely with the person you’re arguing against. Be charitable when interpreting your opponent’s arguments. Are you sure they mean what you think they mean? What else could they be saying? Look for sources that defend the position you’re arguing against. If they make good points, acknowledge and engage with these ideas in your work. Remember you’re trying to find the truth. If you need to distort someone’s ideas to beat them in an argument, you’re missing the point! With the above in mind, you should be able to avoid making straw man arguments. And if you’d like help expressing yourself clearly, don’t forget to get your work proofread.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Operation Pastorius - World War II German Operation Pastorius

Operation Pastorius - World War II German Operation Pastorius Operation Pastorius Background: With the American entry into World War II in late 1941, German authorities began planning to land agents in the United States to collect intelligence and carry out attacks against industrial targets. Organization of these activities was delegated to the Abwehr, Germanys intelligence agency, which was headed by Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. Direct control of the American operations was given to William Kappe, a long-time Nazi who had lived in the United States for twelve years. Canaris named the American effort Operation Pastorius after Francis Pastorius who led the first German settlement in North America. Preparations: Utilizing the records of the Ausland Institute, a group that had facilitated the return of thousands of Germans from America in the years before the war, Kappe selected twelve men with blue-collar backgrounds, including two who were naturalized citizens, to begin training at the Abwehrs sabotage school near Brandenburg. Four men were quickly dropped from the program, while the remaining eight were divided into two teams under the leadership of George John Dasch and Edward Kerling. Commencing training in April 1942, they received their assignments the following month. Dasch was to lead Ernst Burger, Heinrich Heinck, and Richard Quirin in attacking the hydroelectric plants at Niagara Falls, a cryolite plant in Philadelphia, canal locks on the Ohio River, as well as Aluminum Company of America factories in New York, Illinois, and Tennessee. Kerlings team of Hermann Neubauer, Herbert Haupt, and Werner Thiel were designated to strike the water system in New York City, a railroad station in Newark, Horseshoe Bend near Altoona, PA, as well as canal locks at St. Louis and Cincinnati. The teams planned to rendezvous at Cincinnati on July 4, 1942. Operation Pastorius Landings: Issued explosives and American money, the two teams traveled to Brest, France for transport by U-boat to the United States. Embarking aboard U-584, Kerlings team departed on May 25 for Ponte Vedra Beach, FL, while Daschs team sailed for Long Island aboard U-202 the next day. Arriving first, Daschs team landed on the night of June 13. Coming ashore on a beach near Amagansett, NY, they wore German uniforms to avoid being shot as spies if captured during the landing. Reaching the beach, Daschs men began burying their explosives and other supplies. While his men were changing into civilian clothes, a patrolling Coast Guardsman, Seaman John Cullen, approached the party. Advancing to meet him, Dasch lied and told Cullen that his men were stranded fisherman from Southampton. When Dasch refused an offer to spend the night at the nearby Coast Guard Station, Cullen became suspicious. This was reinforced when one of Daschs men shouted something in German. Realizing that his cover was blown, Dasch attempted to bribe Cullen. Knowing he was outnumbered, Cullen took the money and fled back to the station. Alerting his commanding officer and turning in the money, Cullen and other raced back to the beach. While Daschs men had fled, they saw U-202 departing in the fog. A brief search that morning unearthed the German supplies which had been buried in the sand. The Coast Guard informed the FBI about the incident and Director J. Edgar Hoover imposed a news blackout and commenced a massive manhunt. Unfortunately, Daschs men had already reached New York City and easily evaded the FBIs efforts to locate them. On June 16, Kerlings team landed in Florida without incident and began moving to complete their mission. The Mission Betrayed: Reaching New York, Daschs team took rooms in a hotel and purchased additional civilian clothing. At this point Dasch, aware that Burger had spent seventeen months in a concentration camp, called his comrade for a private meeting. At this gathering, Dasch informed Burger that he disliked the Nazis and intended to betray the mission to the FBI. Before doing so, he wanted Burgers support and backing. Burger informed Dasch that he too had planned to sabotage the operation. Having come to an accord, they decided that Dasch would go to Washington while Burger would remain in New York to oversee Heinck and Quirin. Arriving in Washington, Dasch was initially dismissed by several offices as a crackpot. He was finally taken seriously when he dumped $84,000 of the missions money on the desk of Assistant Director D.M. Ladd. Immediately detained, he was interrogated and debriefed for thirteen hours while a team in New York moved to capture the rest of his team. Dasch cooperated with the authorities, but was unable to provide much information regarding the whereabouts of Kerlings team other than stating they were due to meet in Cincinnati on July 4. He was also able to provide the FBI with a list of German contacts in the United States which had been written in invisible ink on a handkerchief issued to him by the Abwehr. Utilizing this information, the FBI was able to track down Kerlings men and took them into custody. With the plot foiled, Dasch expected to receive a pardon but instead was treated the same as the others. As a result, he asked to be jailed with them so they would not know who betrayed the mission. Trial Execution: Fearful that a civilian court would be too lenient, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered that the eight would-be saboteurs be tried by a military tribunal, the first held since the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Placed before a seven-member commission, the Germans were accused of: Violating the law of warViolating Article 81 of the Articles of War, defining the offense of corresponding with or giving intelligence to the enemyViolating Article 82 of the Articles of War, defining the offense of spyingConspiracy to commit the offenses alleged in the first three charges Though their lawyers, including Lauson Stone and Kenneth Royall, attempted to have the case moved to a civilian court, their efforts were in vain. The trial moved forward in the Department of Justice Building in Washington that July. All eight were found guilty and sentenced to death. For their assistance in foiling the plot, Dasch and Burger had their sentences commuted by Roosevelt and were given 30 years and life in prison respectively. In 1948, President Harry Truman showed both men clemency and had them deported to the American Zone of occupied Germany. The remaining six were electrocuted at the District Jail in Washington on August 8, 1942. Selected Sources U-boat.net: Special OperationsHistoryNet: German Saboteurs Invade America in 1942FBI: George John Dasch the Nazi Saboteurs

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Pick a time in your life that was greatly significant to you, one that Essay

Pick a time in your life that was greatly significant to you, one that marked a change in your life and perspective and one tha - Essay Example This mass shooting incident churned my insides because for the first time I experienced the meaning of death and the sense of loss executed by it. Before that ominous day of December, I attached no value to the idea of life being a hotheaded nonconformist that I was. I was engaged in an endless search for happiness and sense of purpose. That search took me to different places but I never got any answer. But after 14th December 2012, I realized that sometimes answers to fundamentally important questions of life can be embedded in witnessing the tragic demise of someone you dearly love. Yes, that is true. I realized the importance of my life after experiencing the tragic death of someone I had stayed close to for 5 long years. The person who died after the mass shooting occurred at the hospital because of fatal wounds was the little brother of my dearest friend. It seems like I have known this family forever and after I arrived in the US from Asia about 6 years ago, my friend’s family has been my family in its most literal sense. I have known these people forever and I adore them as fiercely as my own family. In my friend’s mother, I see the unbelievable generosity of my mother and in his little brother’s innocent tricks, I used to witness the youthful cheekiness of my own little brother living in Asia. I several times played the role of a big brother for that little man accompanying him to super stores whenever my friend was unavailable or assisting him in other chores. When I first heard the news of the tragic incident, I was sitting hopelessly bored at a cafe thinking about what interesting task could I engage in to make my life a little worthwhile. After I was told that my friend’s little brother had also got severely wounded amidst shooting, I acutely remember the whole scene literally darkened for some moments. And after his death, everything happened so quickly, watching my friend and his mother shell-shocked over their irrecove rable loss inculcated an overpowering respect for life in my heart in that same instant. I acknowledged the unique power of life and dark loss of death due to that unfortunate social event which depressed the entire society beyond possibility and is still making headlines. That event changed me as a person forever. Before that, I had minimal respect for life and the associations shared by me with significant others struck no chord in my heart for long. Now, I have a thriving passion for life and essentially attach considerable importance to every moment I spend with the people I love because one never knows what tomorrow might bring. That time of my life also compelled me to think about certain serious issues of the society in which I had no interest before due to lack of awareness. But, such an intense experience helped me to understand the validity of the anti-gun sentiments in the US. Considering myriad lives and families destroyed by such deadly mass shootings, I believe now tha t every college’s administration in every state should go all the way through to prohibit students from bringing guns. My perspective about the whole issue is also same as that of the majority’s according to which guns simply do not belong in a college classroom. Research also stresses that gun control is strongly related to sound societal values (Wilson 9) and inability of colleges to become major front in fight over carrying

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Position Paper - Death Penalty Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Position Paper - Death Penalty - Essay Example Death penalty has been present ever since the societal shift from being primitive communal to the slave society state wherein civilizations were formed and rulers were made. The death penalty was implemented by the earliest civilizations yet there were no formal records of a death sentence being served. According to the Web site library.thinkquest.org, death penalty has very old roots; in fact, there is evidence of its application even in peoples such as Babylonians, ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. (). The earliest recorded death sentence according to the Web site www.pbs.org was in the 16th century when a member of the Egyptian nobility was accused of magic, and was ordered to take his own life. (). Through the ages death penalty was implemented, it was only the manner of which it was executed and of how it was perceived changed through time, the manner changed from the guillotine and hanging through the firing squad and lethal injection, a brief history of how death penalty w as done and the violations which led to a death sentence is presented in the Web site www.pbs.org. () It was only since after World War II, that there has been a consistent trend in abolishing the death penalty. (â€Å"Death Penalty Worldwide†, en.wikipedia.org, ). Political as well has humane considerations have been taken into account in the abolition of death penalty as a punishment for some crimes. Since the start of abolition, the number of death penalty sentences served curved down, although capital punishment was still retained in other countries, most of these countries are those with religious considerations. The Instruments of death were also changed, some were more harsh than others, in some countries morbid methods

Saturday, January 25, 2020

Narration and Perspective in Pramoedyas Inem Essay -- Asia Narrative

Narration and Perspective in Pramoedya's Inem Tradition represents an integral component of one's cultural identity, and this is especially so in this rapidly changing world which we live in, where the boundaries between different cultures are increasingly being blurred and distorted by the process of globalisation. While traditions do define the beliefs, practices and collective experiences of a people, the continued existence of certain socio-cultural institutions in which discriminatory and repressive measures still persist cannot be condoned. It is this very dimension that Pramoedya addresses in his short story, "Inem": The narrator's reminiscences of his childhood perform a serious social commentary and incisive social critique of various repressive traditional institutions in Indonesian society, such as the practice of child-brides (i.e. the forced socialisation of children), as well as the intransigent nature of prevailing patriarchal attitudes towards women and subsequent treatment they receive in the author's socio-cult ural milieu. The story achieves, albeit subtly, a powerful condemnation of these facets, which is presented artfully through a duality in the narration - a child's naà ¯ve perspective and circumscribed knowledge to describe the course of events as they happened, alongside the mature, retrospective voice, which also provides a highly mimetic depiction of life in this society. It might be pertinent and helpful here to first discuss the structure of the narrative itself, for there are several elements in the sequencing of the discourse that contribute in no small way to the overall effect of the narration/narrator. The narrative begins in media res (beginning in the midst of the action at a crucial junct... ...d in the narration. This is ultimately left to the sub-text, of what is left unsaid. It is quite clear where the author stands on the issues the short story raises, and through the naà ¯vetà © in the children's perspective presented in the narrator's recollections, an intense and vivid resemblance to reality in this very retrospection, and the narrative sequencing that remorselessly directs the story towards the concluding tragedy - a powerful and scathing, if not sober, social critique on the nature of tradition, adhering to correct social behaviour and resistance to change is shaped and conveyed. Bibliography Chatman, Seymour. "Narration: Narrator and Narratee". Reading Narrative Fiction. New York: Macmillan, 1993. 90-97. Pramoedya Ananta Toer. "Inem". Contemporary Literature of Asia. Arthur Biddle et al (ed.) Blair: Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1996. 139-148.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Should the Barnardo’s Silver Spoon advertisement campaign have been banned?

A study of an advertising campaign and the ethical issues involved. Media influence refers to the impact of mass media, it has the ability to shape our society's way of thinking and it has the power to send a strong and influential message to its audience. Advertising media is a form of communication whose purpose is to promote a particular product or service. The message that these adverts send off are not always positive so therefore, certain regulatory authorities are there to counteract this negative influence. In the UK, the content of advertisements are regulated by the ASA (Advertising Standards Authority) and they have the authority to ban any adverts that are harmful, misleading or offensive. In winter 2003, Barnardo's launched their â€Å"Silver spoons† campaign against poverty but within three months, the campaign was banned. Barnardo's is a British Charity found by Thomas John Barnardo in 1866. Barnardo's purpose is to care for the abused, the vulnerable, the forgotten and the neglected. They believe that every child deserves to be given an opportunity to fulfil their potential and live a worthwhile, blissful life. The purpose of Barnardo's â€Å"Silver Spoon† campaign was to draw attention to child poverty and hopefully be able to raise a significant amount to eliminate child poverty. They used shocking images of new born babies, hoping to shock the target audience into donating to their charity. The reason Barnardo's felt it was necessary to produce such controversial adverts was because of a poll they carried out, 86% of people questioned did not realise that one in three of the UK's children are born into poverty. Barnardo's felt that actions had to be taken to raise awareness of this fact. The advertisements feature a cockroach, a bottle of methylated spirit and a syringe protruding from the babies' mouths. The babies in the first three adverts look distressed and alongside the images is text explaining the situation of child poverty in the UK. One of the images features a new born baby named Mary, very yellow in colour; entirely covered in body fluid with a half empty syringe forced into her mouth. The yellowness of Mary's skin indicates poor health and infirmity; perhaps she is not fed properly, not cared properly. The audience learn that this child is born in a hospital because of the hospital band tied onto its wrist. The fact that the baby is still covered in body fluid implies lack of care and nurture. The half empty syringe protruding from Mary's mouth indicates that she has already been doomed to a life of drug abuse, immediately taking away the innocence of the child. Mary is crying shows that she does not want this to happen but â€Å"thanks to poverty† this is a future that has been predestined and she alone is powerless to change. The fact that the baby is in such a vulnerable position, clenching its fist with its arms placed by its side indicates that she is opened up and exposed to the horrors of poverty. The fact that Mary has tilted her head to the side crying reinforces the fact that she is weak and does not want to face the future poverty has destroyed. The main purpose of this shocking image is to trigger curiosity and â€Å"shock† the audience into reading the text alongside the image. The text is very skilful and contains a lot of underlying emotion. Through one small paragraph, we see the presence of numerous literary devices which makes the advert much more persuasive and effective. The headline â€Å"There are no silver spoons for children born into poverty† relies on the old English proverb â€Å"born with a silver spoon in your mouth† meaning to be born into a life of opportunity and prosperity, assuming the audience would know the meaning of the proverb. Through this we learn that the campaign is targeted at middle aged, middle/upperclassmen, as they are much likely to be the ones who would understand the meaning of the proverb. This metaphor is used to point out that not every child is fortunate enough to be born with a â€Å"silver spoon† and children are not born with equal opportunities. The naming of the child is very effective, not â€Å"the baby† but â€Å"Baby Mary†. This gives the child back its innocence the image has taken away. Naming the child has the effect of making everything appear very genuine and personal. The purpose of this is to make the audience emotionally drawn into the advert and sympathise for the children who are born into poverty. And hopefully, donate to the charity. Baby Mary is three minutes old. Thanks to Poverty she faces a desperate future†, already poverty has predetermined her life for her. This emphasizes the impact of poverty, informing the audience what poverty is capable of destroying. Notice that â€Å"Poverty† in the text begins with a capital letter; this personifies poverty, as if poverty is a being, a monster that is ready to pou nce, to leap, to attack. This is very effective when trying to convey that poverty is going to be responsible for the baby's hopeless future, as personifying poverty tells you that poverty is the one to blame. Poverty is waiting to destroy Mary's hope and ambition and is likely to lead her to a future of drug abuse. † Abstract nouns such as â€Å"hope† and â€Å"ambition† were used, â€Å"hope† and â€Å"ambition† are possessions everyone should have; it is not an object or luxury that only some could afford. It is something that everyone deserves, you do not have to be wealthy to have hope and you certainly don't need wealth to be ambitious! By telling the audience that poverty has stolen these away from a newborn child emphasizes the power of poverty by illustrating what poverty is capable of doing. However, this can be very misleading as it gives the audience a negative impression of what it means to be poor. Within three months, the ASA received around five hundred complaints about the content of the adverts being very misleading and offensive. In December 2003, the campaign was withdrawn. In response to the numerous complaints made against the first three adverts, Barnardo's released a less offensive and less controversial advert, but equally hard hitting and effective. The new advert features a new born child, with a silver spoon placed in its mouth. This refers to the same proverb as the past three adverts, â€Å"born with a silver spoon in your mouth†, thus makes association and reminds the audience of the previous ads. The shining silver spoon carefully placed in this baby's mouth juxtaposes the dangerous, unpleasant objects forced in the other babies' mouths. This makes the audience stop, wait and think about the message of the ads. The silver spoon signifies a life of opportunity and prosperity. The use of high key lighting, baby bathed in golden light, signifies wealth and power and also an environment of peace and serenity. Baby sleeping on a cushion-like surface signifies a comfortable and easy life. This is very different to the previous adverts, where the babies were left on plain white blanket. The fact that this baby's eyes are placid and wide open suggests that it's looking forward to its bright future. Whereas, the babies in the other adverts looks distressed and not at ease. The audience sees this baby from a birds eye view; this suggests that there is someone watching over, like a parent nurturing a child. This signifies the warmth and love the babies in the previous adverts did not appear to have. The pictures of the babies in the previous adverts were taken from an angle looking at the baby from the side; this signifies lack of care and abundance. The headline â€Å"If only every child was born with a silver spoon† is the objective Barnardo's is trying to achieve. To make sure that every child gets â€Å"the best start in life, and the chance to fulfil their potential†. The repetition of the phrase â€Å"if only† emphasizes the fact that Barnardo's objective has not yet been accomplished and is significant because it signifies that something can be done to make this happen. The silver spoons campaign was designed to reduce the impact of poverty on children to the minimum. The adverts are trying to convey that â€Å"children born in poverty are more likely to suffer ill-health, be unemployed or homeless and to become involved in offending, drug, and alcohol abuse and abusive relationships in adulthood. † The reason Barnardo's felt it was necessary to produce such controversial adverts was because of a poll they carried out, 86% of people questioned did not realise that one in three of the UK's children are born into poverty. Barnardo's felt that actions had to be taken to raise awareness of this fact. The morning the first adverts were released, the ASA received 92 complaints and immediately launched an urgent investigation. Many felt that the images of the adverts were very shocking and offensive because it gives the public a false impression of what it's like being poor. The adverts showing poverty, portrays a child who lacks care and support. Parents who are poor can still love and care for their child, being poor does not mean that you do not care about your child. One of the reasons why individuals found this advert so offensive was because it was stereotyping the poor. However, statistics show that children who are born in poverty are more likely to under perform in school and live in a high crime-rate area. So therefore they are more likely be victims of crime or associate with criminals. Although this is proven correct by statistics, it is more like a fact the certain individuals find hard to accept and want to forget about. The purpose of these shocking images is to force those people back to reality and compel them to do something about it. After three months since the ad's first release, it was banned by the ASA. This campaign cost one million pounds, but only lasted three months. There are many arguments against the ban, one of them being that the advert has been very successful in informing the public about child poverty. â€Å"People are now more aware that child poverty exists in the UK and are aware it is the biggest threat to childhood. † The numbers of donations received through the Barnardo's website are six times higher than usual. This shows that the advert was very effective and helped to make a real difference by improving the lives of children living in poverty. The advert has met the demands of being honest, truthful and legal. It has been tested with an agency affliated with the ASA before being released, and was passed. This indicates that the ad did not violate any laws or legislations, therefore it was considered appropriate for the public's viewing. This means that the main reason why it was banned was because certain individuals found the advert's pessimistic nature very disturbing and offensive. The fact that these adverts were released just before Christmas 2003 may be one of the reasons why people refused to accept it. Christmas is the time of year where people over indulge and so they often don't want to think about the existence of poverty because it makes them feel guilty spending so much money on things they often do not need. They do not want to be pestered by their own guilt, so therefore they prefer to ignore reality. To conclude, I think that the Barnardo's first three adverts should not have been banned. This is because the media today constantly reports poverty in third world countries that it shapes us into thinking that poverty only exists there and not here. The number of people in poverty in this country is very high and is extremely shocking because the UK is one of the most well developed countries in the world, yet many people are so poor. Research shows that one in every three children in the UK are born into poverty, but 86% of those questioned were unaware of this fact. This means that an advert that is powerful, shocking and grasping like Barnardo's â€Å"Silver spoons† is necessary to inform the public about the situation of child poverty in the UK and what we could do to help. I think that the adverts should not be banned because its effective in capturing attention and persuade people to donate. The ad successfully helped to make a difference by increasing the number of donations and thus improving the lives of children living in poverty. However, I cannot force myself to agree that a child who is born into poverty would definitely lead a life of extreme acoholism, drugs and squalor. I think that it really is down to the influence of parents, teachers and peers to shape a child's mind and future and not their family's financial status.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

The Legalization Of Physician Assisted Death - 1173 Words

The idea of committing euthanasia and physician- assisted suicide (PAS) had a historical root in the nineteenth century and referred as skillful alleviation of suffering1 in Latin transcripts. Recently the theme of the legalization of physician-assisted death (PAD) in Canada boosted in 2012. The decision of the British Columbia Supreme Court in the case of Carter v. Canada (Attorney General) was the threshold of the theme. It ruled that the Canadian Criminal Code 2 prohibition against PAD was discriminatory. According to the decision, the section 241 of the Code abuses the section of 12 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The adjudication is being finalized by the Supreme Court of Canada in 2015 by granting a†¦show more content†¦In term of jurisprudence, assuming the legalization of euthanasia and PAD based on the court s decision in Carter v. Canada has no legal ground. First of all, there is a new law only regarding PAD, whereas there is nothing about euthanas ia. Secondly, euthanasia and PAD are two different legal terms. In brief, â€Å"euthanasia means the deliberate act undertaken by one person with the intention of ending the life of another person to relieve that person s suffering†, according to the Canadian Senate 1995 report 3. In PAS, a physician, at the request of a competent patient, prescribe a lethal quantity of medication, intending that the patient will use the medicals to commit suicide 4. Thirdly, according to section 241 of the Canadian Criminal Code, there is a punishment for a doctor who assists a person to commit suicide. This sentencing revised through a decision from the Supreme Court of Canada that declared it should discriminate. In fact, derogating section 241 of the Canadian Criminal Code regarding the prohibition of PAD is vastly different from legalizing euthanasia or PAD. The Supreme Court of Canada in Carter v. Canada case provided: ...we should issue the following declaration: Section 241 and s.14 of the Criminal Code unjustifiably infringe s.7 of the Charter and are no force or effect to the extent that they prohibit physician-assisted death for a competent adult person who (1)