Tuesday, December 31, 2019

What Is Algebra and Why Is It Necessary

Simply put, algebra is about finding the unknown or putting real life variables into equations and then solving them. Unfortunately, many textbooks go straight to the rules, procedures, and formulas, forgetting that these are real life problems being solved and skipping the explanation of algebra at its core: using symbols to represent variables and missing factors in equations and manipulating them in such a way to arrive at a solution. Algebra is a  branch of mathematics that substitutes letters for numbers, and an algebraic equation represents a scale where what is done on one side of the scale is also done to the other side of the scale and the  numbers act as constants. Algebra can include real numbers, complex numbers, matrices, vectors, and many more forms of mathematic representation. The field of algebra can be further broken into basic concepts known as elementary algebra or the more abstract study of numbers and equations known as abstract algebra, where the former is used in most mathematics, science, economics, medicine, and engineering while the latter is mostly used only in advanced mathematics. Practical Application of Elementary Algebra Elementary algebra is taught in all United States schools beginning between the seventh and ninth grades and continuing well into high school and even college. This subject is widely used in many fields including medicine and accounting, but can also be used for everyday problem solving when it comes to unknown variables in mathematical equations. One such practical use of algebra would be if you were trying to determine how many balloons you started the day with if you sold 37 but still had 13 remaining. The algebraic equation for this problem would be x - 37 13 where the number of balloons you started with is represented by x, the unknown we are trying to solve. The goal in algebra is to find out the unknown and in order to  do so in this example, you would manipulate the scale of the equation to isolate x on one side of the scale by adding 37 to both sides, resulting in an equation of x 50 meaning that you started the day with 50 balloons if you had 13 after selling 37 of them. Why Algebra Matters Even if you dont think youll need algebra outside of the hallowed halls of your average high school, managing budgets, paying bills, and even determining health care costs and planning for future investments will require a basic understanding of algebra. Along with developing critical thinking, specifically logic, patterns, problem-solving, deductive and inductive reasoning, understanding the core concepts of algebra can help individuals better handle complex problems involving numbers, especially as they enter the workplace where real life scenarios of unknown variables related to expenses and profits require employees to use algebraic equations to determine the missing factors. Ultimately, the more a person knows about math, the greater the opportunity for that individual to succeed in the engineering, actuary, physics, programming, or any other tech-related field, and algebra and other higher maths are typically required courses for entrance to most colleges and universities.

Monday, December 23, 2019

A Report On The Australian Banking Industry - 1815 Words

a. The Australian banking industry resembles an oligopoly with a few players playing a key part. This is evident from the share of top 5 banks in total housing loans standing at almost 73%, and it has risen over time from 60%. This shows that loans are more concentrated with top 5 banks now. The global financial crisis has led to a more concentrated market with lesser competition , lesser number of banks with housing loans and a consequent increase in share of total housing loans with the top 5 banks mentioned in the article. Experts point out that, ‘The pricing power of the four major banks reflects the strength of their brands and their dominant market positions. The big banks charge more for loans and less for deposits than smaller banks, hence their average interest margin is 2.2 per cent, compared with the 1.8 per cent margin of the regional banks.’ More evidence comes from a PWC report that states that’ concentration levels have increased since the onset of GFC’. The rise in HHI is proof of rising oligopolistic tendencies in this sector after 2008. b. A cartel is an example of collusive oligopoly- OPEC is a real life example. collusion will imply that all firms operate as a monopoly, leading to a price of Po and quantity Qo as shown. This is found where MR= MC. Firms make abnormal profits that are sustainable in long run. As compared to perfect competition Qc Qo and price is lower at Pc. Competition reduces the deadweight loss or loss of economicShow MoreRelatedBank of China: Chinese Central Bank861 Words   |  4 PagesChinese central bank, international exchange bank and specialised international trade bank. Fulfilling its commitment to serving the public and developing Chinas financial services sector, the Bank rose to a leading position in the Chinese financial industry and developed a good standing in the international financial community. In 1994, the Bank was transformed into a wholly state-owned commercial bank. In August 2004, Bank of China Limited was incorporated. The Bank was listed on the Hong Kong StockRead MoreThe Impact Of Technology On The Financial System1478 Words   |  6 Pagessophistication of cyber security threats that has resulted in the rise in cybercrime not just in a technologically driven country like Australia but worldwide. Australia’s financial industry has been referred to as one of the largest and highest-performing industries in the country, and according to the Australian Institute of Criminology, it also is one of the â€Å"more sophisticated users of information and communications technologies† (Austrade, 2009). The financial industry’s increasing dependenceRead MoreWestpac Pestel Analysis+Recommendation740 Words   |  3 Pageslaws supervising the banking system in Australia. In this paper, we focus on one important and famous regulation: ‘four pillars’ policy. 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Sunday, December 15, 2019

Mm Approach Free Essays

Qus4. What are the assumptions of MM approach? Ans. Assumption of the MM approach The MM approach to irrelevance of dividend is based on the following assumptions: * The capital markets are perfect and the investors behave rationally. We will write a custom essay sample on Mm Approach or any similar topic only for you Order Now * All information is freely available to all the investors. * There is no transaction cost. * Securities are divisible and can be split into any fraction. No investor can affect the market price. * There are no taxes and no flotation cost. The firm has a defined investment policy and the future profits are known with certainty. The implication is that the investment decisions are unaffected by the dividend decision and the operating cash flows are same no matter which dividend policy is adopted. The model Under the assumptions stated above, MM argue that neither the firm paying dividends nor the shareholders receiving the dividends will be adversely affected by firms paying either too little or too much dividends. They have used the arbitrage process to show that the division of profits between dividends and retained earnings is irrelevant from the point of view of the shareholders. They have shown that given the investment opportunities, a firm will finance these either by ploughing back profits of if pays dividends, then will raise an equal amount of new share capital externally by selling new shares. The amount of dividends paid to existing shareholders will be replaced by new share capital raised externally. In order to satisfy their model, MM has started with the following valuation model. P0= 1* (D1+P1)/ (1+ke) Where, P0 =   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Present market price of the share Ke =   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Cost of equity share capital D1 =   Ã‚  Ã‚   Expected dividend at the end of year 1 P1 =   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Expected market price of the share at the end of year 1 With the help of this valuation model we will create a arbitrage process, i. e. , replacement of amount paid as dividend by the issue of fresh capital. The arbitrage process involves two simultaneous actions. With reference to dividend policy the two actions are: * Payment of dividend by the firm * Rising of fresh capital. With the help of arbitrage process, MM have shown that the dividend payment will not have any effect on the value of the firm. Even if the firm pays dividends, resulting in a increase in market value of the share, the effect on the value of the firm will be neutralised by the decrease in terminal value of the share. How to cite Mm Approach, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Higher Education Reform Samples †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about theHigher Education Reform Australia. Answer: Introduction Education is a process in which people are equipped with knowledge; it is a basic requirement for all economies. Education has a great influence on the nations economic performance. For instance it is the major factor behind the employment of workers in an economy; employment is done only to those who possess certain skill; those without are disregarded. Over the years, development were experienced until schools were established. The primary school education is basic to every Australian child; the Australian government has established many public schools to facilitate the accessibility of children to schools. It has also provided free primary education to ensure equality in the acquisition of education. The secondary schools is the subsequent stage followed by the tertiary education. After completion of secondary education, students proceed to the tertiary institutions where they specialize on the acquisition of specific skills. However, not many students have been able to join tertiary institutions; some of the factors limiting the entrance is poor secondary performance and the high fees payable in these institutions. The government has implemented some educational reforms with an objective to help most students to acquire tertiary education skills (Education.gov.au, 2017). Parents and students will require this information in getting awareness of how tertiary education could be achieved at the lowest cost. It will also help the government in budgeting for the funds set aside as a promoter to achieving higher education. Economic Analysis Zajda and Rust (2017) noted that globalization is a driver for higher education reforms. The access to tertiary education has been on a limited number of students. In order for the government to raise the number of students who join tertiary education, it has proposed reforms to cut the payable fees. According to Croucher (2017), the Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Program (HEPPP) is part of the ongoing legislating initiative reform with an objective of promoting equity and accessibility in universities. The government has always offered support in paying some proportion of the school fees the university students are required to pay; this was to help as many students to attain the higher education at a lower cost. However, the number of university enrolment in Australian universities have gone down and thus need for more reforms to stimulate the enrolment. According to Doyle (2017), the pre-budget announcement was made by Simon Birmingham the Australian education mini ster in 2017. It propose an increase in university fees by 1.8% per year for the period between 2018 and 2021. Bexley (2017) noted that in overall this increase will be 7.5% and will raise the students fees by $2,000 to $3,600 for the four year course. The concept of demand and supply is applicable in this case analysis; by paying a larger proportion of school fees for the student, the government is only able to support a limited number of students. The reform proposed is to lower the proportion of school fees payable by the government; the surplus after the reduction would be used to fund more students and the enrolment rate would rise. The proposal requires that the student will pay a higher school fees if passed. There however exist a challenge in implementing this reform since there are many parties that are against it. Most importantly, the university students are not willing to accept any increase in their school fees as a support to promoting the reform. The analysis from Deloitte shows that there has been a 9.5% increase in the cost of providing university education as from 2011 to 2015 (Croucher, 2017). If the funding by the government was cut, the amount of money expected to be relieved for other students as at 2019 is pr ojected to be $380 million. The speculation of fees increase due to the increased teaching costs is 25%, but the proposed reduction in governments funding is 20%. The proposal to cut the funding has been in place since 2014. The idea has been criticized since then and thats the major reason why it has not yet been implemented. Massaro (2016) forecasted a reduced proportion of government expenditure from 0.5 to 0.4% of its total GDP. The budget has been rising every year since 2002 and is projected to continue rising. Its not clear whether this reduction will improve the higher education. Hare (2017) noted that the cut in funding will be performance-based. Recommendations The government should raise its budget on education expenditure as it is an important component of economic growth. The government could also invest in improving the information asymmetry in the labor market. This would help in ensuring that the university graduates do not take long before getting a job. This would facilitate the fast payment of the higher education debts; when these debts are payable, they are made available for funding the enrollment of other students. The government should analyze the impact of this reform implementation on both the present and the future students. It should consider whether the reform would increase or reduce affordability. Some students may enroll and end up failing to complete their studies owing to the rising school fees. Conclusion The government pays a big proportion of the school fees payable to the public universities. This is a good step to promoting higher education. Nevertheless, the cost of education provision has gone up and thus a need to raise the school fees. The government is also concerned by the fact that enrollment in universities has been lower and need to be improved. However, the government is faced by a budget constraint in the stimulation of this enrollment. It therefore means that the governments budget on higher education is insufficient and need to be raised. It is not easy for this proposal reform to be passed it is being argued to create inefficiency. It is not clear whether the cutting of government funding will be able to boost the enrollment in universities since some people may decide to avoid the increased fees by failing to enroll. Some graduates take long before they land into their first job which delays the payment of their debt obligations. References Bexley, E. (2017). Higher education reform: small changes for now but big ones to come. [Online] The Conversation. Available at: https://theconversation.com/higher-education-reform-small-changes-for-now-but-big-ones-to-come-76978 [Accessed 13 Aug. 2017]. Croucher, G. (2017). 2017 higher education reform: cuts to universities, higher fees for students. [Online] The Conversation. Available at: https://theconversation.com/2017-higher-education-reform-cuts-to-universities-higher-fees-for-students-63185 [Accessed 13 Aug. 2017]. Doyle, J. (2017). Students set to face higher uni fees under Government shake-up. [Online] ABC News. Available at: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-05-01/university-fees-to-rise-in-federal-government-education-shake-up/8487564 [Accessed 13 Aug. 2017]. Education.gov.au. (2017). Higher Education Reform Package. [Online] Available at: https://www.education.gov.au/higher-education-reform-package-0 [Accessed 13 Aug. 2017]. Hare, J. (2017). Universities attack Birminghams higher education reform package. [Online] Theaustralian.com.au. Available at: https://www.theaustralian.com.au/higher-education/universities-attack-birminghams-higher-education-reform-package/news-story/614c9910b336ebefe31822265dda79fe [Accessed 13 Aug. 2017]. Hill, J. (2017). Australian Education Budget May 2017. [Online] Towards the Final Hour. Available at: https://towardsthefinalhour.com/2017/05/australian-education-budget-may-2017/ [Accessed 13 Aug. 2017]. Massaro, V. (2017). Higher education reform needs to have vision and be affordable. [Online] Theaustralian.com.au. Available at: https://www.theaustralian.com.au/higher-education/higher-education-reform-needs-to-have-vision-and-be-affordable/news-story/de4ecf1f9cee428d1591aa421fa897de [Accessed 13 Aug. 2017]. Zajda, J. and Rust, V. (2016). Globalization and higher education reforms. Switzerland: Springer.

Friday, November 29, 2019

To find out what happens to the efficiency of a motor as I change the mass it lifts Essay Example

To find out what happens to the efficiency of a motor as I change the mass it lifts Essay When devices transfer energy, only part of it is USEFULLY TRANSFERRED to where it is wanted and in the form that it is wanted. The rest is transferred in some non-useful way and therefore it is wasted. The wasted energy and the useful energy are both eventually transferred to the surroundings. The greater the proportion of energy supplied to a device, THAT IS USEFULLY TRANSFERRED, the more efficient we say the device is.A motor is a device that transfers electrical energy into rotational kinetic energy, which can be used to lift a load. We are going to try and find out how the efficiency of a motor differs as we change the mass that it is required to lift. To do this we will let a small electric motor lift a small load 0.5m off the ground and work out its efficiency, increasing the weight of the load it has to lift by 0.1N each time we run it. Below is a diagram showing how the circuit for this experiment will be set up:As you can see, the motor has to be connected to the ammeter, vo ltmeter and the power supply. The ammeter is placed in series and the voltmeter is placed in parallel. The motor should be clamped tightly onto a stand over one metre off the ground. A piece of string capable of reaching to the floor should be attached to the spindle of the motor, whilst the other end should be attached to the mass hook.When the experiment is run, a stopwatch should begin timing as the power supply is switched on. Whilst the load is being lifted the amps should be read from the ammeter, and the volts from the voltmeter, at the same time. Once the load has been lifted 0.5 metres the timing should be stopped and the data recorded: weight (N), volts (V), amps (A), time (s). The basic raw data from the experiment has now been obtained. This process is repeated twice for each different weight that is lifted, amounting to a total of three runs per change in weight.The purpose of the volts, amps and time readings is to calculate the electrical energy supplied to the motor as it runs, or the total energy input, required later for calculating the efficiency. To calculate the total electrical energy supplied to any device we need to use to use the following formula:ELECTRICAL ENERGY (J) = VOLTS (V) ? AMPS (A) ? TIME (s)The volts, amps and time values were multiplied together to calculate the total electrical energy supplied to the motor in our experiment, as you can see in Table #1 in the Tables of Data section in the column headed Electrical Energy.PredictionThere has to be a weight that a motor is incapable of lifting. So although the motor can do more work by drawing more current, it must become less efficient.I predict that the line of best fit showing the trend on my results graph will look like:In other words, as the mass of its load increases, the efficiency of the motor will decrease by a uniform rate.I predict this because the heavier the weight, the more rotational kinetic energy will be required to turn the motors spindle to lift the weight. An increase in the amount of rotational kinetic energy being transferred must also result in:* An increase in friction affecting the motors moving parts, causing energy to be wasted in the forms of heat and sound.* An increase in the current drawn by the motor. This causes an increase in the resistance of the wires connecting the motor to the power supply, which in turn causes electrical energy to be wasted in the form of heat, lowering the amount of useful energy output, and therefore lowering the motors efficiency.Calculating EfficiencyIn order to find the motors efficiency each time we shall have to calculate several values. Firstly we need the raw data obtained from the experiment:* Weight Lifted (N): the weight the motor is lifting in Newtons.* Height (m): the height in meters that the load is lifted always 0.5m.* Volts (V): the voltage taken from the voltmeter in the circuit.* Amps (A): the number of amps read from the ammeter in the circuit.* Time (t): the time in seconds th at it takes the motor to lift its load 0.5m (50cm).We then need:* Average Electrical Energy (J): the average electrical energy supplied to the motor in Joules.* G.P.E. (= Movement energy) transferred (J): this is the useful energy output we get from the motor in Joules.Which allows us to calculate:* Efficiency (as a value between 0 and 1): the efficiency of the motor based on all the other values.On to a graph I can then plot:* Weight/Newtons LiftedAgainst* EfficiencyRESULTSTables of DataBelow is the data that I used to calculate the motors efficiency, set out in three tables of values, though the calculations used to convert the values are explained later. All of the numbers are given to two decimal places.Note: The calculations for these values will be explained later.Table #1: This table displays the three measurements of electrical energy taken each time the motor was run, and the weights it was required to lift.* = counted as an anomalous result not included when averaging dat aElectrical Energy (J)Weight (N)0.330.310.270.100.75*0.300.360.200.600.590.530.300.490.790.590.400.710.660.910.501.20*0.790.830.601.001.311.240.700.971.32*0.870.801.781.861.44*0.902.532.703.47*1.00Table #2: This table displays the average electrical energy supplied to the motor, the change in G.P.E. of the motor (the useful output) and the efficiency of the motor worked out from the other values.Average Electrical Energy (J)G.P.E.=Movement Energy (J)Efficiency0.300.050.170.480.100.210.570.150.260.620.200.320.760.250.330.810.300.371.180.350.300.920.400.431.820.450.252.620.500.19Table #3: This table displays the values to be plotted onto my results graph: Newtons lifted (weight of load) against efficiency.Newtons Lifted (N)Efficiency0. AND CONCLUDINGBelow is a diagram of a running motor. An explanation of what is happening is given below.1. Electrical energy is supplied to the motor.a. Some of this electrical energy is transferred into the desired movement (rotational kinetic) energy in the motor this is useful energy.b. Some of the electrical energy is transferred into non-useful thermal (heat) and sound energy this is waste energy.2. The waste energy is lost to the surroundings.3. In this case the movement energy is now transferred into gravitational potential energy when the load is lifted.Energy has to be transferred from one form to another, e.g. a hairdryer turns electrical energy from a mains supply into movement energy (the fan), heat energy (to heat the air as it passes through) and sound energy (waste energy). You cannot create it or destroy it. Energy efficiency is how much of the energy you put into an appliance or machine is transferred into the useful energy that you are trying to get out. All machines in the real world have an efficiency that is less than 1 (or 100%). In the case of the motor above, part of the electrical energy put in is transferred into the useful movement energy, however, the machine also transfers its energy into two other waste forms: it creates a little heat and a little sound, caused by the force of friction on its moving parts, as in all machines. The greater the proportion of energy supplied to a device, that is usefully transferred, the more efficient the device.To calculate the efficiency of any device we need to use to the following formula:EFFICIENCY = USEFUL ENERGY TRANSFERRED BY DEVICETOTAL ENERGY SUPPLIED TO DEVICE So in the case of an appliance that coverts 200 joules of electrical energy per second into 150 joules/sec of waste heat energy, 20 joules/sec of useful light energy and 30 joules/sec useful sound energy EFFICIENCY = 50 ? 200 [? 100] = 25%We are trying to find out how the efficiency of a motor changes as we increase the mass it has to lift, so we need to remember that the efficiency of a motor is determined by how much of the electrical energy put in is transferred into useful energy output. Th e useful energy output is gravitational potential energy (GPE). Gravitational potential energy is the ENERGY STORED in an object because of the HEIGHT that the WEIGHT (due to the force of gravity on the object) of the object has been lifted against the force of gravity. If an object can fall, its got gravitational potential energy. The motor we used for our experiment was set up to lift a load 0.5 metres off the ground, in other words, the rotational kinetic energy of the motors spindle is transferred into movement energy (the same type really) as the load lifts, and by the time the weight has been lifted to its full height, all the movement energy will have been converted into gravitational potential energy, as the load can now fall. Because calculating efficiency requires that we know the useful energy output, we shall need a way of calculating the change in GPE of the load once it has been lifted (how far the weight has moved). To calculate the change in gravitational potential e nergy we use the following formula:CHANGE IN GRAVITATIONAL = WEIGHT (N) ? CHANGE IN VERTICAL HEIGHT (m)POTENTIAL ENERGY (J) So in the case of an object weighing 800N undergoing a change in height from 1000m to 3000m above ground, the GPE of the object can be worked out using the formula:CHANGE IN GRAV. POT. ENERGY = WEIGHT ? CHANGE IN VERTICAL HEIGHT= 800N ? (3000m 1000m)= 800N ? 2000m= 1600000JIn our experiment we calculated the GPE (useful energy output) like this:GPE = Weight of motors load in Newtons ? The height it was liftedThe height that the load was lifted remained the same throughout the whole experiment. The weight lifted was incremented by 0.1N to find how this affected the efficiency. The values for gravitational potential energy are displayed in Table #2 in the Tables of Data section, along with the averaged values for the total electrical energy supplied to the motor for each weight change.With these two values: Electrical Energy and Change in GPE, we have the necess ary data needed to calculate the efficiency of the motor. To calculate efficiency, we are required to use the formula:EFFICIENCY = USEFUL ENERGY TRANSFERRED BY DEVICETOTAL ENERGY SUPPLIED TO DEVICEWe can now substitute the two values needed to find the efficiency of our motor with our own data from the experiment, where GPE is the useful energy transferred and Average Electrical Energy is the total energy supplied:EFFICIENCY = GPE (J) ? Average Electrical Energy (J) Giving us the values shown in the column headed Efficiency in Table #2.Graph and Line of Best FitI have drawn a graph showing the results that I have collected. The correlation of the points made it possible to draw a line of best fit onto my graph. By looking at the graph it is possible to determine a clear trend, to find the optimum weight for the motors efficiency, and to spot any anomalous results.What I have found outBy looking at the graph you can see that the line of best fit shows a clear relationship between the weight of the load and the efficiency of the motor: at first, an increase in the weight of the load causes an increase in the motors efficiency. This is only true up until the weight reaches 0.6N, at which point the efficiency peaks, and the efficiency decreases as the weight continues to increase.I now know that the efficiency of a device does not remain constant, it is affected in some way by the work that it has to do.The gravitational potential energy is affected only by the change in mass (or the affects of a change in mass), as both the electrical energy supplied to the motor and the height the load had to be lifted were unaltered by us.In summary, I have found the efficiency of the motor increases whilst lifting relatively light weights, until the highest efficiency value is reached, at which point it begins to decrease.How close is this to my prediction?I predicted that the efficiency of the motor would decrease by a uniform rate as the weight of its load was increased. I p redicted this because I already knew that there must be a weight a motor is incapable of lifting, so its efficiency must be affected by the weight of its load. I also drew a sample of what I thought my line of best fit would look like. This turned out to be partially correct: the real line of best fit clearly shows the efficiency decreasing, but only after an initial increase before reaching 0.6N.My graph backs up these comments. As you can see, the weights tested that were higher than 0.6N produce a clear downwards trend, showing that the efficiency of the motor decreases as the weight of its load is increased.Explaining what I have found outThe first trend why does the efficiency increase?My results graph tells me that an increase in the weight of our motors load results in an increase in efficiency. In other words, the lighter the load, the lower the efficiency (up until 0.6N) why is this? I believe it is due to the fact that a light load does not produce enough tension in the string attaching it to the motor to prevent the string from slipping on the spindle. This would have made it appear on my graph that the motor itself was inefficient, when in fact it was due to the string gripping the spindle improperly. The string slipping was caused by a lack of friction between the string and spindle, resulting in less rotational kinetic energy in the spindle being converted into gravitational potential energy the efficiency of the motor appeared to be lower for lower weights, though in actual fact the energy output was altered by the string slipping, rather than by the efficiency of the motor. The reason for the initial rise in efficiency was that the greater the weight between string and spindle, the more friction, therefore the less slipping occurred, causing the gravitational potential energy (useful energy output) to be higher, regardless of the motors efficiency.The second trend why does the efficiency decrease?My line of best fit shows that increasing th e weight of the motors load beyond 0.6N causes a decrease in efficiency. There are several reasons explaining why an increase in weight causes efficiency to begin decreasing.FrictionFriction is a force that is created whenever two surfaces move or try to move against/across each other, i.e. the moving parts inside an electric motor. Friction always opposes the motion or attempted motion of one surface across another surface.1. Friction between the string and motor spindle: Our motor lifts its load by transferring the electrical energy supplied to it into rotational kinetic energy in the spindle. This winds the string causing the load to move, until all the movement energy has been transferred into gravitational potential energy. If we increase the weight of the load, there is increased tension in the string. This means that there is increased friction where the string is attached to the spindle, in other words, as the spindle turns, there will be more resistance between it and the s tring. The friction between these two surfaces results in heat and a little sound being produced. Because we know that energy can be changed from one form to another but cannot be created or destroyed, we know that the heat and sound energy produced as a result of friction between the string and spindle must therefore have been transferred from the electrical energy inputted. Both heat and sound energy are non-useful to us in this case, therefore the more electrical energy transferred into these waste forms, the greater the apparent reduction in the motors efficiency. It is important to note that it is friction between the spindle and the string, not the efficiency of the motor that is responsible for a decrease in useful energy output in this instance. Though the graph makes it appear that the motors efficiency is decreased, the actual rotational kinetic energy transferred is not affected by this friction (unlike point 2 below), since it is during the intermediate stage, when the e nergy in the spindle is transferred to the load, that the GPE (the useful energy output that we measured) is decreased.2. Friction affecting the moving parts inside our motor: The heavier the weight, the more movement energy the motors spindle will need to have in order to lift the weight. The motor is able to draw more current allowing it to transfer a greater amount of rotational kinetic energy. An increase in the amount of rotational kinetic energy being transferred to the spindle (it has more spin) must also result in an increase in friction affecting the motors moving parts. This friction creates heat and a little sound, which can only have come from the electrical energy supplied to the motor, meaning that energy is wasted, lowering the motors efficiency. Essentially, increasing the weight of the load causes an increase in friction therefore decreasing the efficiency. This explains the decreasing trend we see on my results graph.ResistanceComponents resist the flow of current through them. They have resistance. Electric current is the movement of electrons through a conductor. Metals (e.g. wires) conduct electricity because the atoms do not hold on to their electrons well FREE ELECTRONS are present. The number of mobile electrons that are in a length of wire will produce a certain amount of resistance. This is because when current is passed through the metal the electrons of the particles are given energy allowing them to move. As they travel through the wire, they come in to contact with impurities and other particles, which they bump into. This collision releases some of the electrical energy as heat energy, which is lost to the surroundings. The greater the current, the more electrons flow. The more electrons flow, the more collisions occur, causing a greater amount of the electrical energy to be wasted as heat.In the case of our motor:* When we increase the weight of its load, we increase the amount of work the motor must do, or how much rotational k inetic energy must be transferred.* The motor is able to draw more current to allow it to do more work.* An increase in the current flowing through the motors wires* Causes an increase in waste heat energy* Which can only have come from the electrical energy supplied to the motor in the first place, therefore lowering the efficiency.Vibrating motorWhen motors work hard they have a tendency to vibrate or shake slightly. I believe this is due to conflicting forces inside the motor. When we increased the weight our motor had to lift, we caused these forces to become stronger, therefore the motor would have vibrated or shook more violently. This kinetic energy has to come from somewhere we know it must have been transferred from some other form, as energy cannot just be created It must have come from the electrical energy inputted. I now know that the motor vibrating contributed lowering the efficiency of our motor because an increase in the weight of its load causes more energy to b e transferred resulting in greater conflicting forces, making the motor vibrate, or lose energy as non-useful (waste) kinetic, decreasing the efficiency of the motor.0.6N why does it peak here?My line of best fit peaks at 0.6N, showing this to be the optimum weight for maximum efficiency for this particular motor. This must be the point at which the efficiency stops increasing, and begins to decrease. In other words, the amount of non-useful waste energy stops decreasing, and begins to increase instead. So why does the first trend cease? I believe that a load weighing 0.6N must have produced enough tension in the string, and therefore enough friction to grip the spindle of the motor effectively, allowing the motor to appear at its most efficient. Weights exceeding 0.6N however, caused increased friction affecting all of the motors moving parts, producing two waste forms of energy: heat and a little sound, enough to start lowering the motors efficiency. A large enough increase in re sistance and vibration of the motor were also factors that contributed to a decrease in efficiency.EvaluatingAnomalous ResultsIn my results table containing raw data from our experiment (table #1) I have marked any results that I considered to be anomalous with an asterix (*). These anomalous results were not averaged along with the others.On my graph I have circled what I consider to be a single anomalous result.I consider these results to be reliable because they do not fit in with the rest. Values marked with an * are not the values you would expect to come alongside the other two results from that particular weight tested. For example, take the three original values for electrical energy supplied to the motor when lifting 0.20 Newtons:0.75*0.300.36You can clearly see that 0.75 does not match with the other two results, nor does it fit in with what you might expect it to be, considering the results for other weights it is not part of the trend. It has therefore been marked as an omalous and not including when averaging.Are my results reliable?Indications of a reliable experiment are:1. Results that, when plotted on a graph, form a very clear trend. That is, a line of best fit can easily be determined, and many points fall on it.2. Results that, when plotted on a graph, do not present [many] anomalous results results that do not obey the general trend, which must be discarded/ignored when drawing a line of best fit.3. Results which, when an experiment is repeated, are close together for repeats. E.g. 0.32, 0.33, and 0.34 would be considered reliable in our experiment, as these could be averaged confidently.Bearing these points in mind, it is possible to judge the reliability of my results.When I plotted my final results onto a graph, I had to draw a line of best fit a line that best took account of the trend of all the valid results plotted. My line of best fit was difficult, but by no means impossible to draw. The points did demonstrate a trend, which cou ld easily be determined, but it was not possible to know exactly where to draw the line. The points are far too loosely arranged, and there are to few of them, to provide a strong enough trend to indicate an unarguable line of best fit. An unquestionably reliable set of results could look like this:However, my points merely suggested the shape of a line of best fit. Also, the sketch above shows many points falling directly on the line of best fit. My line of best fit has no points exactly on it, which shows how difficult it was to draw I was required to guess how the line would pass through the gap between two points, etc.The number of anomalous results in the data and on the graph can also show how reliable the results are. My original data for electrical energy in Table #1 contains quite a few anomalous outcomes, indicating that the results of my experiment are dubious. Things that are reliable tend to happen the same way time and time again, so a completely reliable experiment w ould produce very similar results for any repeats. Although my results contain several severely anomalous results, there not a great cause for concern, as the repeats that are not anomalous definitely have relationship to each other. They are close enough to be averaged reliably when the anomalous results have been omitted.As for anomalous results on the graph, there is only one clearly anomalous outcome in my opinion, which is the efficiency for the load weighing 0.8N. If all the results were this scattered, the results would be completely unreliable, but it is easy to recognise as anomalous, and the rest of the points still provide a strong enough pattern as to imply a trend and line of best fit.In summary, my results are quite unreliable, but are still useful and form a good trend. The graph agreed in part with my prediction, and can be explained using science. This shows that the results were fairly accurate and reliable, and although results were present that were obviously inc orrect, they were easy to spot and eliminate. However, the points on my graph were quite scattered and loose showing that my results could have been more accurate.Do I have enough evidence to support a conclusion?In my conclusion I tried to explain the results that I obtained. I believe that I do have enough evidence to support my conclusion, though I would have preferred much more data, and if possible collected in a more accurate way, as this would have made my conclusion far easier to back up the more evidence I have the more sure I can be about the statements I have made, and the larger the amount of data I have to draw upon and use to suggest a trend. This would have made the experiment more worthwhile, and the results far more reliable.I know I have enough results because it was possible to draw a line of best fit, and guess at how the trend would have continued. However, a good example of how I would have liked more evidence is at the very top of my line of best fit, where I have suggested the optimum weight for maximum efficiency of the motor to be. With our current set of results, we can not really be sure where the layout of further points would be around that area, and exactly how the line of best fit should be shaped. For instance, the optimum temperature could have been at a slightly different point, because I was unable to tell exactly when the line of best fit should begin to slope downwards when I drew it.Using science it is also possible for me to suggest what further results would be without doing further experiments. For example, I can predict how the line of best fit would be shaped for lighter weights.How well did I carry out the investigation? -Problems we had that affected the resultsDuring the course of the experiment, we encountered several problems that may well have affected my results.1. The ammeter and voltmeter readings: The ammeter and voltmeter readings were both taken at a given time whilst the motors load was being lifted. Th e displays were fluctuating, showing the readings to be inaccurate. Also, the two people taking the readings found it difficult to judge an accurate value, because of the changeability of the readings.2. Timing for lighter loads: Whilst testing lighter weights, the load was lifted too fast for an accurate measurement of time to be taken, using a simple stopwatch. Therefore the timing would have been inaccurate for some of the lighter weights tested.How fair was our test?I think that our experiment was very close to being as fair as possible, considering the time and equipment possible, because we considered all the things that might have made the results unreliable, even if we could not control them. We made sure to keep all of the runs the same by conducting them under exactly the same conditions, so we can be relatively confident about the accuracy of our results. However, the results are definitely unreliable, though this is mostly due factors beyond our control which shall be lo oked at later. Below are the ways in which we attempted to keep our experiment a fair test, thus increasing the accuracy and usefulness of our results.What we did to make it a fair:Using the same people to take time the experiment and say Now: We made sure to only the same two people for the following two jobs:1. Starting and stopping the stopwatch at the beginning and end of each run so that the time taken for the load to be lifted could be measured.2. Saying Now to indicate to the two other people reading the ammeter and voltmeter when the values should be taken.We made sure not to swap these people around because maintaining the accuracy of our results relied upon both the reaction time and hand-to-eye coordination of these two people. Changing them around would have meant using people with different reaction times, so the test would have been unfair.Conducting the experiment on just one occasion and not repeating on a different day: The whole experiment was conducted on a single occasion. We did not allow the experiment to take place over several days, because the equipment we would have used would have been different, causing unfairness in the results. For example, we almost certainly have used a different motor, which, although it might look similar, would have been slightly different than the first, as they are not precision made. The efficiency for this motor would have different and therefore the data as a whole would have been unreliable.When we first looked at our results graphs, a clearly anomalous result was apparent (this point has been ringed on my graph). Although it was tempting to go back to the experiment, set everything up as close as possible to before and test that weight again, we did not do this. If we had, different equipment would have made our results inaccurate. The resistance of the wires used and of the motor would have been different, as length and amount of rust or damage can alter this. Also, we had no guarantee of using the sa me motor again, which is vital when testing efficiency.Calculating averages and omitting anomalous results: When carrying out the experiment, we made sure to test each weight of load three times, recording the electrical energy input for each repeat. The experiment threw up several anomalous results that can be seen in the raw data. When we calculated an average electrical energy value for every three repeats we omitted any anomalous results. These were results that were unexpected, and gave clear signs that something went wrong during that run, e.g. a hiccup in the motors efficiency, or a misread ammeter value. By omitting these results, I was able to give a fairer set of results, consequently increasing the reliability and ease with which my results could be analysed.Keeping the height from which the load started from the same each time: To keep the amount of electrical energy needing it be transferred into gravitational potential energy the same for every lift, we made sure that the motors load was place at exactly ground level, with the string taut every time the experiment was run. If the load was above ground level, it would have taken less energy to be transferred to lift it 0.5m, giving an unfair picture of the efficiency. We made sure that the sting was taut each time, because if it had been slack, the motor spindle would have had to complete more rotations in order to wind the string and lift the weight.What may have caused anomalous results?When we conducted the experiment everything went relatively well and according to plan. We did everything we could to keep it a fair test and tried to control all the factors that might have made the results inaccurate. However, there were many things that could have caused inaccuracy that were beyond our control, some of which were:1. Reaction time/human error: The accuracy of the results relied heavily on the consistency of the timings, carried out by someone stopping and starting a stopwatch when the power was turned on and when the load had been lifted 0.5m. However, it is impossible to time an experiment completely accurately using such basic equipment, and without letting human error affect the results. Slight (but nonetheless important) imprecisions will have occurred when timing how long it took the motor to lift its load, causing the results to be inaccurate and unreliable.2. The way in which the string wrapped around the spindle: The string could be seen winding round the motors spindle in different ways. This would have affected the amount of friction between string and spindle, which could have both lowered the efficiency or increased it.3. Motor efficiency being altered of its own accord: The motor itself may have caused anomalous results. Sometimes it seemed to run very slow, at other times very fast, regardless of what weight it was lifting. This could have been due to the motor drawing too much current, or internal parts functioning irregularly or not as they should.4. Ammet er and voltmeter readings: The ammeter and voltmeter readings were fluctuating, so it is doubtful if they are accurate. This could also mean that the motor alters the amount of current it draws as it lifts its load. This means that a reading taken at one given point will not give an exactly fair representation of the electrical energy being inputted. In an attempt to combat this problem, we read the ammeter and voltmeter when the load had been lifted exactly half way. This however, could have caused the results to be inaccurate for a different reason, as it relied upon someone saying Now when the load had been lifted 0.25m off the ground. This means the results will have been affected by human error and reaction time how soon after

Monday, November 25, 2019

The Walt Disney Company Research Paper Example

The Walt Disney Company Research Paper Example The Walt Disney Company Paper The Walt Disney Company Paper Disney is one of the most famous names in the animation industry, known for providing entertainment directed to adults and children alike; with international theme parks and a world-class animation studio and business franchise, the company nearly dominates the industry. Famous names such as Mickey Mouse began with Disney, and were the foundation of a company that has now branched out into several entertainment studios, theme parks, products and other media productions. E-commerce has changed the world we live in today. No longer does he or she have to get the car and drive to the store, now the store comes to him or her. From and organizations view-point, development of and e-commerce site can be very difficult to effectively execute. Hours of careful planning and research is needed, because without planning he or she could potentially launch a site which could ruin his or hers chances of ever having a successful e-commerce site. If the site is not successful on the first go, customers probably will not be returning for future purchases. Disney has one of the most successful e-commerce sites out there, and this did not happen without careful planning. With the click of a button Disney can be brought to his or her doorstep. Things like, advance tickets, clothing, interactive games and videos, toys, books and everything else Disney has to offer. How does Disney get he or she to purchase these items? By focusing on customers needs. The first step in developing an effective e-commerce site is by listening to the customer, which for Disney has never been a problem since they have always been devoted to making people happy. Questions like, how can Disney save the customer time and money? What are the customers biggest frustrations with e-commerce sites? These, along with many others, are questions, which need answers before building an e-commerce site. Disneys e-commerce developers also needed to do lots of research on how e-commerce sites function. Things like shopping carts, shipping, payment options, security, search engines, and managing the content. Knowing how these things function and ways to improve upon them will reduce later frustrations. Disney must also stay update on the latest technology, and what their competitors are offering. E-commerce and the Internet have changed the way people do business, and with Disneys careful planning they have evolved successfully with this change. Technology is also a factor in how successful a company will be, and Disney must sure to stay up-to-date with technological advances. The mission of The Walt Disney Company is to be one of the worlds leading producers and providers of entertainment and information. Using our portfolio of brands to differentiate our content, services and consumer products, we seek to develop the most creative, innovative and profitable entertainment experiences and related products in the world.(disney.com) The Walt Disney Company is an Internet pioneer. The planning stage that Disney uses is very well organized in a way that allowed them to launch two of the worlds first major, branded consumer Web sites, ESPN.com and Disney.com, in 1995. Some of the many technology firsts Walt Disney Incorporated Group (WDIG) has achieved include: First Web property to serve over one million pages in its first year (1995) First Internet publishing system (1995) First Internet authentication/registration system (1996) First dynamic content architecture system (1996) First Internet infrastructure management systems (1997) Â  First massively multiplayer online game for kids and families (2002) First cached video delivery system (2003) Each year Disney continues to lead the industry in technology by acquiring companies and being creative with their ideas for the future. Disneys Internet technology places importance on there continuing ability to grow and improve their technology leadership position. The most popular Web properties experience very high volumes of traffic and the technology infrastructure. Disney is the owner and operator of one of the worlds largest Internet infrastructures, with data centers in Seattle and Orlando: More than 2,000 servers handling nearly three billion page views per month Available peak bandwidth of more than eight gigabits per second and well over three gigabits per second sustained Disney Connection is a rich collection of Disney broadband entertainment for families. It includes a regularly updated slate of games, activities and videos, as well as selects access to premium offerings such as Disneys Blast, an ad-free online entertainment service for kids, and Disneys Toontown Online. In addition, the new Digital Showcase provides videos from Disney each week, including cartoon shorts, music videos and movie trailers. (http://disney.com) Disney is focused on its technological objectives of operating better, faster and more efficiently. Disney also provides centralized strategic leadership and operational management and a world-class technology platform for all of The Walt Disney Companies Internet properties. Disney also directly operates Disney.com worldwide, FamilyFun.com, Movies.com, Disney Auctions and the wireless businesses for all. Cultural diversity is becoming the norm in many workplaces, with one out of every four Americans now identifying themselves as a minority, according to the 2000 census-up from one in five in 1990. This shifting cultural landscape requires both managers and their employees to rethink how they work with others. (Drumrie, 2005). Founded in 1923 as a cartoon studio, The Walt Disney Company has grown to become a diversified, international family entertainment and media company.(www.corporate.disney.go.com/careers). A culturally diverse staff is something that the Disney Corporation takes seriously. Starting at the top of the company with the board of directors and the management team, the company has incorporated men, women, and a diverse group of other talented individuals. The company believes in order to foster a culture of creativity; a diverse and innovative team must be in place in every area. Tina Kashlak is the Senior Diversity Representative in Orlando, Florida. She is responsible to provide support in the strategic planning of the professional recruitment team and to help increase the diversity candidate pool.(www.monsterhr.com/qanda/kashlak). The Disney Corporation created a Disney Institute to teach and inspire other business. This is based on their great management style and success. The four functions of management in a diverse group foster a team environment. Instead of the top executives coming up with the planning, Disney uses its young imaginations. For example: Disney uses its Imagineering department to host an imaginations competition to promote diversity for university students to create, design and develop Disney products and earn scholarship money. Students are encouraged to show their creativity by using their technical, artistic, or writing skills to design a ride, attraction, hotel or land within an existing Disney theme park or resort. Or create an entirely new experience; a theme park, resort, themed restaurant, or something completely brand new. (http://disney.go.com/disneycareers/imaginations/home/html). The students do the planning for project and then move into how they will organize the project or ideas. The finalists in both the individual and team categories are brought to the Walt Disney Imagineering in Glendale, California, where they formally present their idea to a panel of Walt Disney Imagineering judges. (http://disney.go.com/disneycareers/imaginations/home.html). The third part of the management process, which is leading is what the actual management team of the Disney Corporation achieves by empowering their employees. Disney accomplishes this by job rotation every three months, cross utilization during peak seasons where salaried and office personnel from behind the scenes work shifts in areas with increased attendance, and lastly through task forces. This is where teams responsible for implementing a project or idea, such as a new attraction may spend up to 100% of their time. Lastly, the controlling stage is where Disney monitors its progress thru increased sales and makes adjustments to products etc. as necessary. In conclusion there are many internal and external factors that contribute to an organizations success. To assure the success he or she must know how the four functions of management affect these factors. The Walt Disney Corporation has obviously used these functions of management to become one of the most successful corporations today and is used a model for other organizations.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Homeostasis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Homeostasis - Essay Example The excretion of these hormones from the kidneys stops when intake is enough and diluted urine is excreted. The homeostatic mechanism at times acts as the sole surviving mechanism of the body. The presence of homeostasis in our body gives us the freedom to work in any weather, day or night, hot or cold, dry or stormy. If there was no homeostasis, we could not have been able to regulate our body temperature. That would have resulted in the hibernation of our species during winters like many other living things. The regulation and adoption of our body's internal environment according to the external environment has provided us with the freedom to work in summers when we could preserve water by excreting concentrated urine, work in winters by preserving heat by peripheral vasoconstriction and erection of skin hair which trap a layer of air preserving body heat. When the body is pushed beyond the limits of homeostatic control, cellular death occurs such as frost bite that occurs in extre me cold or stroke that could occur in extreme dehydration when homeostasis fails due to the extremes of temperature. Maintenance of homeostasis is especially important in a developing embryo since the developing organs require a perfect internal environment to grow in. also, the metabolic enzymes require specific conditions to function and produce the energy required by the embryo. Absence or failure of homeostatic mechanism in developing embryo could lead to in-vitro death or abnormal development and the new born may not be liable to life.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Management of risk falls among the elderly Essay

Management of risk falls among the elderly - Essay Example The need to address the issue of falls among the elderly is therefore an important consideration. This paper shall discuss the management of risk falls among the elderly, specifically carrying out a critical analysis of the main theoretical and clinical concepts/principles and relevance to clinical care. Following a balanced and evidenced critique, this paper will develop recommendations for clinical practice and/or educational development of nursing practitioners in relation to the topic. Search strategy An initial internet search was carried out via Google Scholar using the following search words and specific combinations: falls elderly; fall risk elderly; management falls elderly; impact falls elderly. Literature dated from 2001 onwards was further evaluated for inclusion into this study. A search of the following databases was also carried out: Cochrane, Medline, and PubMed using the same search words specified above. The inclusion criteria covered elderly patients 65 years and a bove, with or without history of falls, with or without history of mental health illness including dementia, with or without history of osteoarthritis or other diseases affecting mobility, gait, or balance, with or without history of stroke rendering paralysis, and those undertaking any form or medication which may cause dizziness or disorientation. The following inclusion criteria are possible contributory elements to falls among the elderly and any of these elements present may also pose equal risk to the elderly patient. The credibility of the authors, including publication, and peer-review of the chosen literature was evaluated. Chosen studies were then specifically assessed in terms of relevance. Contextual information Falls as incidents caused by the aging process are often associated with diseases like Parkinson’s disease, musculoskeletal issues, cognitive degradation, and impairment of sensory systems (Carter, et.al., 2002). Incidents of falls often increase as people get older and as the elderly continue to advance in age. It is also one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among the elderly (Rubenstein and Josephson, 2006). Morbidity from falls includes major injuries and fractures, limited mobility, as well as functional health decline and permanent disability (Wolf, et.al., 2003). A common effect of falls is hip fracture and some of these falls often lead to fractures, especially among the older adults (Moreland, et.al., 2004). These falls are considered preventable and much interest has been directed to these methods of prevention, especially in relation to the risk factors which exacerbate these risks (Barnett, et.al., 2003). Various studies have been carried out evaluating these fall risks and preventive measures for these falls. Most of these studies indicate that the risk for falls increase with the advancing age of individuals, with higher risks seen among those in the over 60 age range (Li, et.al., 2005). Studies also reveal that fall risks are often associated with different factors including history of past falls, cognitive impairment, impairment in the performance of activities of daily living, weakness of muscles or bones in the lower extremities due to disability, impaired gait or balance, dizziness, arthritis, history of stroke, poor eyesight, low body mass index, use of psychotropic medications causing dizziness or disorientation (American Geriatrics Society, et.al., 2001). A

Monday, November 18, 2019

Rewrite lecture review Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Rewrite lecture review - Assignment Example The suggestion that were made to contact people and groups were really amazing because they would rarely cross one’s mind. The suggestions included the social media group page for Star Trek fan conference or rare car owners club. Twitter is the main social media site that is being used by the police to instantly communicate with the public. However, a few of police officers make use of other social media platforms such as Google+ to ensure efficient and service to the neighbourhoods they are offering security. Other than using social media as a tool for communication, police are also monitoring it for criminal of offensive activity. In my view, social media can be a very effective tool in law enforcement if not misused by the police workers. The administrators of law enforcement must establish proper controls over the use of social media to increase the benefits and reduce incidents of misuse by their staff. In doing so, the potential of social media in police force may fully be realized. Toin Pijnenburg works as a manager for change also coaches a number social media sites such as Prezi. Mr. Pijnenburg is the owner of Toin XXL. He is always startled by change and constantly seeks it mainly through putting himself in situations that are inconvenient and assisting others in overcoming change. He made an introduction on the media in the past few decades and its shift to the internet in class. According to him, the present day objectives are changing in their aims. In the past they had to be relevant and achievable, but today, these qualities have been taken for granted. While lecturing, he suggested that the pace of modern society can be reflected better by ambitious and revolutionary. He used Wikipedia as an example on how the audience can assist in creating and developing a web site. Wikipedia unlike other mediums or emails that may require extra services

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Effect of Dispossession on Aboriginal Spirituality

Effect of Dispossession on Aboriginal Spirituality There remains a continuing effect of dispossession on Aboriginal spirituality in relation to the stolen generations. Aboriginal spirituality is based on the encompassment of the Dreaming, the inextricable link with the land, totems and sacred sites and involves ceremonies, story-telling, kinship roles and responsibilities and a strong sense of cultural identity. The stolen generations involved children being forcibly removed from their families and communities and put into institutionalised missions and camps run by both the state government and the Christian Church. It was the cause of dispossession that involved colonisation, missionisation, segregation, assimilation and self-determination policies which significantly impacted Aboriginal spirituality; past, present and future. These were deliberate, calculated policies of the state and are evident in the first YouTube video, Rabbit Proof Fence Stolen Generations (March 24, 2009), where the white official points to the authorisatio n paper, this is the law, and physically removes the three native Aboriginal girls from their mother showing signs of inhumane brutality. Through these policies, Aboriginal land, spirituality, culture and Dreaming were lost never mention Aboriginality. This, along with the crying scenes in video two, Rabbit Proof Fence Documentary forced removal scene, shows the emotional impact that it had on the actors as well as on all the victims of the Stolen Generation. This video depicts the traumatic psychological effects the stolen generation era had on the actors themselves, who emotionally broke down into tears having to act in these roles. This illustrates how the loss of family and spiritual ties caused such devastation. This disconnection from the families, communities and thus, from the elders resulted in the inability to pass down necessary knowledge to the next generation that is needed to keep Aboriginal spirituality holistic, living and dynamic as there is a strong need for oral teaching and learning. The prohibition of practicing Aboriginal spirituality led to the loss of religious traditions, culture, language, ceremonies and identity, was also evident in video three, History in the making: Pain of Stolen Generation lives on, at the age of three, Helen Moran was given a new identity and a new family. Since these children were physically separated from their elders who held their spiritual knowledge along with being physically separated from the land and their sacred sites, there was a loss of identity, from their Aboriginal gender and kinship roles and responsibilities, totemic connection to sacred sites and the inability to perform ceremonies. Helen Moran states, we lost everybody, we lost each other, we lost our grandparents, we lost our whole family, they changed our names, they changed our whole heritage, our identity. This had a continuing effect on Aboriginal spirituality as it broke up families, communities and led to many social and emotional problems. As a result of the continuing effect of dispossession, Aboriginal spirituality has been destroyed overtime, driving them to negative, on-going, long-term problems such as alcoholism, drug abuse, lack of educational achievement, economic opportunity, lowered living standards,; lowered life expectancy, and higher infant mortality rate. Helen Morans personal experience epitomises her emotional trauma the worst thing for me is the idea that this man (Helen Morans biological father) died with his children hating him and blaming him, you lose your children, you struggle through life, mental illness, addiction and you die a lonely sad death with nobody around you. Helen concluded, I wish I had the chance to learn the truth which exhibits how the loss of truth and Aboriginal spirituality had a continuous, effect as Aboriginal family members, victims of the Stolen Generation, still search for their true cultural identity and heritage in the quest to find their spirituality. In summation, such dispossession, violent and physical removal of native Aboriginal children from their parents demolished Aboriginal spirituality since the Dreaming, kinship roles and responsibilities, cultural identity, heritage, language and traditions were lost with disconnection from their elder generations. This drove modern Aboriginals to overwhelming social and emotional problems. The relationship between Aboriginal spirituality and religious traditions require the process of reconciliation. There is a strong need for reconciliation between Aboriginal spirituality and Christians due to the initial contact between the two; full of racism, classism, oppression, inequality, injustice, hate, fear and division. Aboriginal people initially beared the brunt of violence, where they were forced and threatened violently to forget their aboriginal culture, traditions and language. Instead they forcibly were made to integrate into nominal Christianity attending Church services, Sunday school and singing hymns. Western Christianity had a negative impact where falsehoods and heresies were taught to Aboriginal people, for example, The Hamitic Curse, condemning all dark-skinned humans to eternal inferiority. These falsehoods had such an immense impact that most Aboriginals voluntarily denied their Aboriginal heritage, identity, culture, traditions and language because they we re forced to believe in the falsehoods and were concerned with their personal sins rather than the institutionalised sin conducted against them. The awareness that these negative experiences were immoral was the catalyst for the process of reconciliation. A step towards hope for Aboriginal victims to restore their spirituality can be seen in the source, taken from the Lutheran Church of Australia. Aboriginal artwork in the form of a circle is positioned in the centre of the cross to illustrate the continuous existence of Aboriginal spirituality in the heart of those who converted to Lutheranism. If reconciliation is achieved, the future encompasses more hope for these victims. The source is an expression of Aboriginal theology which is the reconciled relationship between Aboriginal spirituality and modern Christianity. The sun rays in the image symbolises the cross significance and how it permeates throughout Aboriginal spirituality and emphasises the need of reconciliation. The symbol of symmetry epitomises the reconciled coexistence of the two religions and the hope for continuous reconciliation. There are some Aboriginal theologians that are part of the liberal tradition. Rev. Dijimiyini Gordarra and Pastor Cecil Grant from Churches of Christ individually helped reconcile Aboriginal spirituality with the Uniting Church in 1970 by contextualising the gospel for Aboriginal people. In 1985, Rev. Arthur Malcolm, the first Aboriginal Anglican Assistant Bishop in Australia was deeply committed to reconciliation and thus, counselled and nurtured Aboriginal people throughout their painful experiences, hopes and visions. The Catholic Church attempted acts of rec onciliation when Pope John Paul II visited Alice Springs in 1986 and stated There is the need for just and proper settlement that lies unachieved in Australia. Aboriginal story-telling theology is another pathway to allow Aboriginal victims to remember their Aboriginal spirituality as well as embrace their Christianity. In this way, Aboriginal people reconcile their heritage with their Christianity as they are taught Biblical scriptures through Dreaming Stories which makes the gospels more meaningful and relevant to the Aboriginal way of life. The reconciliation and unity between Christianity and Aboriginal spirituality can be seen in the source where the cross is made using traditional Aboriginal witchetty grubs. There have been many other movements towards reconciliation. The Uniting Church and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Christian Congress organised an exchange program called About Face, where 150 non-Indigenous people aged from 18 to 30 lived in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. As a sign of reconciliation, a friendship was built when Aboriginal Pastor Ricky Manton and his wife Kayleen were invited to St. Augustines Anglican Church to perform a service. Leaders from many religious traditions gathered in order to fight against Howard Governments attack on the Wik legislation. Other religious traditions, like Judaism and Islam, have assisted in the reconciliation process. A Jewish couple, Tom and Eva Rona, funded the Rona-Tranby project that recorded oral history with the help of Aboriginal Elder Eliza Kennedy. The Muslim community in Australia is most supportive of Aboriginal reconciliation on spiritual, moral, humanitarian and prudential pragmatic ground  [ 1]  is a claim of Islamic assistance in the process of reconciliation. Many faiths like Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism have also assisted in the process of reconciliation. This is evident in The Week Of Prayer For Reconciliation that began in 1993 where they shared the same goal of reconciliation exhibited through dedication to prayer, thought and reflection on acts of unity. In conclusion, there have been many efforts to encourage the process of reconciliation between Aboriginal spirituality and religious traditions and there needs to be continuous support in this subject. The symmetrical elements in the source, taken from the Lutheran Church of Australia, are powerful examples of how artwork has symbolised the co-existence of both traditions. Steps towards reconciliation in the form of proactive movements also provide hope for the victims who had suffered the horrendous effects of spiritual deprivation. Ecumenical developments and interfaith dialogue are of immense significance in Australia. Ecumenical developments are movements that promote cooperation, discussion and unity between different Christian denominations, focusing on what brings sects together, rather than what pulls them apart. Such movements are important to Australia as different Christian denominations unite to solve Australian youth, spiritual, environmental, social and justice issues, spreading peace and harmony. Interfaith dialogue is the cooperative communication between different religious traditions and their adherents. These promoted understanding, peace and a strong sense of belonging between many religious traditions. Non-denominational approach is a method of ecumenical development where it focuses on ignoring differences between different Christian denominations. Such movements can be of great importance to Australia. For example, the Australian college of Theology (ACT) strengthens Australias education system. ACT began in 1898 when Anglicans within Australia gathered resources to produce tertiary courses and exams at every Anglican college. It was linked to universities across Australia and was credited by the NSW Higher Education Board. It became non-denominational when there was more non-Anglican than Anglican students. It was a strong organisation due to the ecumenical movement which increased its efficiency and offered a common program amongst people. Other examples of a non-denominational approach towards ecumenical developments include youth associations such as Girls Brigade and Young Mens Christian Association. Such organisations builds trust between the different denominations involve d. This trust would result in a community that is based on trust, kindness and friendship, creating a stronger witness to the community. Ecumenical developments, in the form of interdenominational approaches, are increasingly evident and significant in Australian culture. Such approaches are those that are collaborative and the goal is to provide opportunities for negotiation between different Christian denominations. This is important to Australia as it creates a sense of unity, belonging, commonality and acceptance on many levels. It begins when Christians from different denominations interact with each other and, hence, leading to communal discussion. An example of this is the annual Week of Prayer for Christian Unity and Reconciliation. This is conducted with a united goal to reach a state of complete reconciliation, relieving many denominations from tension, violence and unnecessary conflict. Many denominations hope for denominational dialogue to act as a facilitator to develop new relationships by exchanging ministers to perform services. Such exchanges are known as pulpit exchanges. Christmas Bowl Appeal, Force TEN and the House Of Welcome are other instances of ecumenical movements where many denominations unite to build fundraising programs. These assist Australia by providing it with a positive reputation in charitable work, These projects show how the kindness of Australians can make a practical difference in the lives of people very far from our shores  [2]  Some of these projects, like House of Welcome, are vital in Australia as they support refugees that have been newly released in Australia by providing them with accommodation and employment. Through these charitable organisations, different denominations bond together and form strong relationships. Ecumenism is important in Australia at a family level. It promotes family through interchurch marriages. This is seen when both the Catholic and Uniting Church composed an agreement on interchurch marriages as a gift to the church. Ecumenism is also helpful in reducing duplication of material, which in turn increases efficiency. This is seen in The Anglican-Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC), where the Catholic and Anglicans prepared doctrine works on common beliefs of the faith. In 2001, the Catholic and Protestant churches united in Australia for the National Church Life Survey where 500,000 adherents from 20 different denominations actively participated in. Such union encourages tolerance and reduces aggression and violence. It in the larger scheme of things reduces racial and spiritual discrimination and attack. Australia is a multicultural and multifaith country and, hence, would benefit from embracing unity of different denominations within Christianity. Deeper ecumenical developments are those that embrace differences. With these movements, comes appreciation and recognition of uniqueness in order to enrich the relationship and focus on commonalities, like the common belief in one supreme God. The deepest level of ecumenism involves overcoming differences and primarily aiming for unity between different denominations. These achievements ultimately bring social justice, peace, harmony and understanding in Australia. The common need and view of religion around the world has resulted to an increase in the search for cooperation and unity since 1945 in Australia. Interfaith dialogue is even more important than ecumenism since the people uniting are separated by greater differences. Since WWII, interfaith dialogue has allowed Australia as a whole to change its attitude towards other religious traditions other than Christianity. It has allowed Christianity and its adherents to recognise their faults and mistreatment against other religious traditions errors at best and works of devils at worst. Interfaith dialogue assists in opening interaction between different people and maintains a multicultural Australian society. It also builds harmony in Australian context as it aims to achieve common goals between religious groups. Interfaith dialogue also addresses division, concern and any ongoing religious conflict such as the Cronulla Riots. It supports and embraces differences. Interfaith dialogue depicts the desire of Australias religious traditions to engage with each other and with the world as it is extremely important to do so in the 21st century. There is strong evidence of interfaith dialogue in Australia and this has been depicted in acts of cooperation between religious traditions in Australia. In 2001, Anzac Day, Christian ministers and Buddhist monks both took part in the services at St. Marys Cathedral. This encouraged unity among Australians as they honoured soldiers in the heart of Sydneys CBD. The Victorian Jewish-Christian Dialogue Committee, The Muslim-Christian Council which together prayed for peace in Ambon, Indonesia and the Multifaith Religious Services Centre which ran at the Sydney Olympics are other examples of interfaith dialogue. Leaders of Christian, Buddhist, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim and other communities together assisted with the $2 million Grifith University Multi-faith Centre showing how unity expresses great strengths and benefits to the Australian community. It brought peace in Sydney 2001, after the terrorist attack, where Muslim, Hindu, Buddhists and many denominations of Christians united at a multifaith prayer vigil.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Abortion Pill Essay -- essays papers

Abortion Pill 1.Problem Statement Approval of the abortion pill RU-486, also recognized as mifepristone, has put abortion back into the spotlight. This has stirred up controversial issues of reproductive rights in America, and a growing concern for the potential impact of RU-486 on the well being of our society's morals and values. 2.Facts and Analysis A Brief History Mifepristone, formerly known as RU-486, provides women with a medical alternative to surgical abortion. Mifepristone is an antiprogesterone drug that blocks receptors of progesterone, a key hormone in the establishment and maintenance of human pregnancy. Mifepristone induces spontaneous abortion when administered in early pregnancy and followed by a dose of misoprostol, a prostaglandin. Researchers have discovered many potential uses for mifepristone beyond pregnancy termination. Uses include treatment of breast cancer, Cushing's syndrome, endometriosis, glaucoma, meningioma, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, uterine fibroids, and the induction of labor. In very low doses, mifepristone may even be used to prevent pregnancy as a method of emergency contraception within. In higher doses, of course, it can be used to terminate pregnancy. Other existing emergency contraception cannot be used to terminate pregnancy because they are not abortifacients. Mifepristone offers women another choice for abortion. It causes a miscarriage and can be used earlier than surgical abortion. Medical abortion is totally non invasive, meaning there's no surgery, and no anesthesia is necessary. Like everything in life, there are some down sides to the use of RU-486. One can assume that it will make abortion easier and more available for a lot of women. However, mifepristone doesn't get rid of all of the discomfort that can go along with an abortion. Similar to a miscarriage, it can cause side effects including nausea, vomiting, bleeding, and heavy cramping. If the pills don't work, a surgical abortion will be necessary. Unintentional pregnancies statistically bring a host of economic, emotional, and physical ills to mother and baby. About half of the unintended pregnancies in Washington State are aborted, according to the state Department of Health. That rate is consistent with the rest of the US. Even though there is a demand for abortion providers, man... ...hese questions. The number of abortions that result in the approval of RU-486 shouldn't be our main concern. If there is a reason to be concerned, it should be on the ethical and moral issues that stem from the reproductive rights of women in America. Without question, abortion is an extremely controversial issue in today's society. However, the different attitudes of abortion activists are more important factors than that which involve the actual abortion procedure. The focal issue of this paper is not to evaluate whether or not abortion should be legal, but rather the question of RU-486 being legal - and readily available. If women have been granted the choice to terminate a pregnancy, then RU-486 simply provides them with a choice on the procedure they prefer to use. The approval of RU-486 will not vastly impact the landscape of abortion in America. Though nearly every individual in America has a personal opinion on abortion rights, abortion remains an issue between a woman, her creator and her physician. As long as abortion is legal, women will now have RU-486 as an option when making the choice that is best for them. Bibliography: www.findit.com

Monday, November 11, 2019

Formal Letter to a Producer Arguing About the Acceptance

Dear Producer, I address you on behalf of the committee on what should be done about the book ‘World Wonders’. The committee would like to revoke the book from stores, but as you can see the committee has perplexed feelings about the matter as when interviewing the editor, he supplied us with the intentions for creating the book. The following letter contains a dispute on which you, Sir, decide to put your faith in. The views of the interviewer are as follows; the educational message is misleading as well as feeding an un-presidential thrust for this kind of precarious information.Children and adults who are engorged in these books tend to do out of the ordinary stunts to get in the book and get famous. Often this leads to danger on one’s self and others which include animals and other personals. Sometimes these records lead to death, heart diseases, obesity, anorexia and other diseases that can inflict the body in some way. Most records that require skill and ris k are underestimated for those which have been won by no effort and have been treated equal. The editor stressed out his argument that his book is acceptable in society as an educational material.He defines that the book has an educational motive as there is not many resource materials of that sort. He also states that it recognizes the human endeavors and their limits. Records that inflict human life leading to an unhealthy or life threatening consequences are immediately stopped before any damage is done. As for the records that focus on human endeavors are recognized greater than others as a team of professional judges trial the records to see if they fit the criteria and if not they are not published in the book.In addition to his argument, the editor states that the book could serve as the perfect gift as it holds great educational references. In all I favor the option of keeping this humanitarian resource in the market as information will be taken as knowledge and without know ledge there will be no future. Human development should be remarked to state the limits of mankind and what are our weaknesses as well as our strengths. Please state your decision as soon as possible. Regards, Bob Hatfeild

Saturday, November 9, 2019

20 Email Marketing Best Practices That Will Improve Results

20 Email Marketing Best Practices That Will Improve Results Emails are incredibly powerful. A third of customers  have visited a website or purchased something just from seeing an email in their inbox without ever actually opening the email. That’s the power of email! Whether you’re running a blog, selling products online, or collecting sales leads, everybody wants a healthy email list. But how do you make that email list an engaged one? By following best practices. Consider the following 20 tips your complete guide to an excellent email marketing program that boosts open and click rates, reduces churn, and increases your subscriber lifetime value! Let’s get started. 20 Email Marketing Best Practices That Will Improve ResultsImplement Email Best Practices With Three Free Templates This post is packed with actionable advice. To help you execute your email marketing even better, weve included these three free templates: Email Marketing Calendar: Plan all your email content in advance and get more organized. Email Subject Line Template: Make writing subject lines easy with these simple fill-in-the-blank templates. Its a great complement to the Email Subject Line Tester. Email Subject Line A/B Test Template: Record results from A/B tests and refine your messaging over time.20 #email #marketing best practices + 3 free templates = success.Infographic: Best Practices, At a Glance. Email marketing is an art and science. Navigate its complexities successfully by following these 20 simple best practices. Check out this infographic rounding up 20 top #email #marketing best practices:1. Send to Yourself First. This one feels like a no-brainer, but when you reflect on how few people actually proofread their own emails, you quickly realize it isn't. Always send yourself a test email first to ensure that: There are no typos The images show up The format looks great on both your desktop and smartphone All the links work There is nothing glaringly wrong with the email Double-check both the HTML and plain-text versions. Always send email newsletters to yourself first.2. Do NOT Spam. This is another no-brainer, but it’s so important it bears repeating: do not spam. Spamminess can refer to poor judgment within the email itself - irrelevant content, all-uppercase subject lines, etc. - but it mainly refers to how you collect and engage with your email subscribers. Buying email lists or signing people up without them expressly opting in first is an absolute no no. Do not do this. If you think you can get away with this, know that you can’t. Purchased lists are associated with extremely high unsubscribe and spam rates. Get too many of those, and you could get banned from your email marketing provider. Other best practices include: adding your physical address somewhere in the email (the footer is a good option). giving people a way to unsubscribe (most reputable email marketing providers include this by default). Leave out either of these, and you are breaking anti-spam laws. Are you unknowingly breaking anti-spam email marketing laws? Find out (and read 19 more best...3. Make it Easy to Subscribe. Since you won’t be purchasing email lists, you want to make it as easy and as enticing as possible for people to subscribe to your email. Here are some ideas: Embed signup CTAs throughout your website or blog. Include a pre-checked checkbox besides any other form where people enter their email address (such as a member registration or checkout page). Add a signup form to your Facebook page. Regularly tweet out a link to your subscribe page. Send your first email within 24 hours of subscribing, if not immediately. With human attention spans officially  shorter than that of goldfish, you can’t risk people forgetting what they signed up for. Make it easy for subcribers to get on your #email list.4. Use a Double Opt-in. Because sharing your email address has become so commonplace these days, people don’t always realize they’re signing up to get overloaded with emails. This is why most experts recommend a double opt-in process. A double opt-in  involves sending a person a confirmation email after they sign up, letting them know that they signed up and requiring them to click a button to confirm they indeed want to stay signed up. Keep your double opt-in email short and sweet like Haute Hijab does below, emphasizing the confirmation button and placing it above-the-fold. Below that button, include validation of why signing up for your email is a good idea: it’s the best way to avoid FOMO on your best offers and freshest content. Here's the confirmation email button: Here's why email marketers should use a double opt-in.5. Schedule Smart. The best day and time to send your emails depends on your unique customer set. However, you can make some educated guesses using the research others have already done.   helpfully aggregated studies from the top email providers to conclude that the best day and time to send emails is Tuesdays around 10am. Start there, and then test and optimize based off your own data. Remember that these times are specific to your recipient’s time zones, which may or may not match yours. Depending on the size of your customer base, you may segment your list based on time zones (more on segmentation later). Recommended Reading: What 10 Studies Say About the Best Time to Send Email 6. Develop a Cadence. Speaking of timing, how frequently do you want to send your emails? Much of your email will be automated based on your user’s actions (e.g. double opt-in confirmations, order confirmation and shipping notifications), but you want to touch subscribers at least once a month. To support this goal, brainstorm an email calendar that corresponds to your content marketing, event marketing, and other promotional calendars. This helps keep you sane while ensuring you stay in touch. Plan sales emails and product launch announcements ahead of time. Help people prepare for the holidays by emailing gift guides and encouraging them to make reservations now vs. later. Not sure how much is too much? If you start sending more emails and witness a downward trend in your open and click rates but an uptick in your unsubscribes, that’s a telltale sign that you’re sending too much. Why is developing a consistent cadence important for #email #marketing?7. Give People Options. Of course, rather than guessing for them, you can always let people choose the frequency themselves. When Hubspot started offering separate newsletter subscriptions options for their blog, organized by frequency and topics, their subscriber churn rate went way down: Other ideas include: Letting people opt for â€Å"less† email Letting people â€Å"pause† their subscription for 30 or 90 days Sometimes people care about your brand but they’re simply overwhelmed or taking a healthy hiatus from email. Help them stay in touch by letting them choose the frequency of your emails. Recommended Reading: 21+ Easy Ways to Build an Email List That Will Skyrocket By 140% in 1 Year 8. Focus on Your Subject Line... Subject lines are critically important. These are the headline that convince a subscriber your email is worth opening. That means you should do everything within your power to set yourself up for success here. Research and tinker to find the two best options possible, then A/B test among those with a small subset of your subscribers. Then, repeat this process for every single email you send. Things that do well in subject lines include: The recipient’s name A tasteful emoji or two 30-50 characters tops Action verbs A clear and irresistible value proposition that matches the content of your email Consistency (Some emails, like blog newsletters, perform best with the same subject line everytime - it helps readers know what to expect so they keep an eye for it in their inbox) Things that don’t do so great are: Spammy keywords (urgent, buy now, win, free) All uppercase letters Typos Overuse of emojis Deceptive subject lines that don’t match the email content (these lead to unhappy subscribers who unsubscribe and grow to resent you as a brand) Remember: the goal of your subject line is to get the people who care about the content within your email to open it, not to get opens at any cost. Editor's Note: You can also use 's Email Subject Line Tester to optimize every one you send.https://.com/email-subject-line-tester 9. ...But Don’t Forget the Sender. Perhaps even more important the subject line, the â€Å"from† name  can literally make or break your email. Sender names tend to perform best when they’re personalized. Instead of just your company name, use a person’s name, like â€Å"Your Name from Your Company.† And never use the default â€Å"No-Reply @ Your Company† option - it’s impersonal, and frankly, frustrating. Use a real name and assign a team member to respond to emails. Don’t forget your pre-header either. This is the preview text that displays after the subject line in most email clients. If you don’t set it, the client will preview something from your email which can look messy and unprofessional. Test these just as vigorously as your subject lines and sender names. Recommended Reading: Everything You Need to Know About Writing Awesome Email Subject Lines 10. Keep It Simple, Stupid. On to the body of the email. The goal here is to grab your reader’s attention quickly and follow up with a strong CTA. Regardless of whether you want them to sign up, order a product, or read your blog post, organize your copy using the â€Å"power of three†: Here's another example from Dropbox: Where possible, limit your CTAs. Try to keep it to one main CTA and place it above-the fold. Also make your CTA a bright, beautiful button that’s easy to find and click - otherwise you’re making people search for it. Before you send, double-check your work by sharing the email with a colleague. Can they instantly (within a few seconds) relay back to you the CTA? If so, move forward with your email. If not, do not pass go. Your email needs work as the message is not clear. Recommended Reading: How to Write a Call to Action In a Template With 6 Examples 11. Add Alt Text to Images and Buttons. Alt text isn’t just for images on your website. Adding them to your emails helps users understand what they’re reading, in case the HTML doesn’t render properly or their email client blocks images by default. Without alt text, readers will simply see a blank space where a button or image used to be. With alt text, they’ll still be able to read the action you want to take and understand where to click. Add alt text to all of your images and CTA buttons, and hyperlink them to your landing pages while you’re at it. Don't forget to add alt-text to all your images (plus 19 more email marketing best practices12. Send the Right Emails. The longer a person has subscribed, the more personalized the emails they receive from you should be - because you’re collecting information from their purchases, their interactions with your support team, and the content they’re clicking on from your previous email sends†¦ right? Right. But at a minimum, most successful email marketing programs tend to include the following types of emails: Double opt-in for subscribing (see tip #4) Welcome/thank you for signing up Some form of blog newsletter Important brand announcements Request for feedback or online review Abandoned cart reminder, order confirmation, shipping confirmation (for e-commerce) What’s the one type of email you should never send? The kind you send, just to send it. Every single email you send should have a purpose that provides value to your customers. Their inbox is not the place to simply remind them of your existence. No one liked the poke button on Facebook, remember? Recommended Reading: How to Get Bigger Results From Email Marketing With Kim Courvoisier From Campaign Monitor 13. Create Drip Campaigns. Drip campaigns are another successful type of email companies send. Drip campaigns extend the water metaphor of the sales funnel. Here’s an example of what a drip campaign might look like for a new e-commerce blog subscriber: Welcome email: â€Å"Thanks for subscribing! Here’s a % off coupon.† A few days later: â€Å"Hope you’re enjoying our blog. Here are our top articles you may have missed.† One week after that: â€Å"If you like our blog, you’ll love our whitepaper about X! It goes into way more detail.† If the prospect downloads the whitepaper, you might then enter them into a new drip campaign. If you’re wondering how you can create drip campaigns, start by knowing your audience. Once you know your audience and define your user personas, you can segment your email list. Different personas get different campaigns with copy choices, send frequency, and content catered specifically to them. What's the benefit to creating email drip campaigns?14. Automate Your Outreach. Drip campaigns are just one type of automated email you can create. There are all sorts of behaviors that could trigger different marketing emails, such as: Someone who subscribes to your blog receives a welcome email sharing your most popular articles. Someone who buys an item gets notified of future sales in that item’s category, plus any new styles of that particular item. Someone who abandons their shopping cart  receives a reminder of the items in their cart, with a steep discount or an urgent call to buy while supplies still alst.Are you automating your #email outreach?15. Keep It True to You. Your emails should match your brand. The colors and font choices should be the same. The tone should read like the same voice of the person who wrote your web copy or your latest Facebook post. However, that’s not to say you can’t give your emails a special flair. Some brands have done this to great success, so they’re essentially known for an outstanding email marketing program. Warby Parker  is one such example: Recommended Reading: How to Define Your Brand Positioning and Brand Voice 16. Encourage Sharing. Want more subscribers? Ask people to share your email! Encourage recipients to forward your email to anyone else who might be interested. Link the CTA to prepopulate a new email message with the subject and body text already pre-filled. For example: Share this email with your friends! Incorporate social sharing, too, but do so with purpose: Want more eyes on your content? Add social buttons for people to share the newsletter link itself on social media. Want more followers? Add social buttons that link to your social media channels. Recommended Reading: Why People Share: The Psychology of Social Sharing 17. Optimize for Mobile. How many of us have spent time waiting in line at the coffee shop checking our emails? Over half of emails are now read on mobile devices, and that trend should only continue as people increasingly rely on mobile devices over desktop computers. That means your email needs to be easy to read, view, and click on mobile. It should load fast (aim for 300KB or less), and it shouldn't require too much scrolling. Keep your email as short as possible, and go heavy on the imagery (while compressing it to ensure optimal load times). Make CTA buttons and any links 45-57 pixels tall to match the size of adult fingertips. Limit the width of your email body to 650 pixels so it displays nicely on most phones. Recommended Reading: Mobile Marketing Strategy: How to Build One the Best Way 18. Test, Test, and Test Again. Nearly all email marketing providers have A/B testing functionality built-in. Many offer multivariate testing as part of an upgrade. Either way, there is absolutely no reason for you to not test your emails. Here are just a few examples of what you can test: Subject lines and preheader text Send times and days of the week Format and layout Featured image or copy CTA placements and types of buttons