Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Biomechanice in Volleyball

Physical Education Volleyball Year 11 The purpose of this report is to evaluate my performance, of my chosen serve the overhand serve, using biomechanical principles. As stated by Amezdroz et al, (2004) â€Å"Biomechanics is the study of how living things move, and the efficiency of movement, in particular. Biomechanics is used to† Provide valid reasons for observed effects diagnose problems with technique and justify changes in technique. †Throughout this term I have taken photos of my progress within the Overhand serve, I will be showing you in detail my strengths and weaknesses when applying the serve I will be Correcting errors and justifying my analysis using biomechanical principles. The accurate technique of the over hand serve. To start off the serve you need to make sure you have volleyball, a court and opponents. When getting ready to serve Set yourself up with your feet, hips and shoulders facing the direction you want the ball to go.The less movement you have while performing this serve the better. For a right handed person the left foot is slightly forward, both knees are slightly flexed, with your body weight equally distributed, hold the ball in your non dominate hand at chest level, palm up, it is important to keep your elbow Loose with a slight bend, Position your serving arm so your elbow and hand are just above your ear, keep your hand open and your wrist locked.The toss is the most Important part of this serve, toss the ball 12 to 18 inches above your head in front of your serving shoulder, this keeps your serving motion simple, so you can reach high and hit the ball with a powerful swing, contact the ball with the heel of your hand, keeping your hand opened and flat, your wrist should be locked your arm fully extended, step forwardAs you can see in this figure, the Girl has got her feet, hips and shoulders facing the way she wants the ball to go, her body is also equally distributed, both of her knees are slightly bend also whe n she has tossed the ball up it has gone about 12 to 18 inches and it is also in front of her serving shoulder, then she hits the ball through with a powerful swing.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Is What You See Real or Memorex?

We have different philosophers and different ideas from each of the philosophers, similar in some ways, vastly different in others and yet their ideas make a person think, as they are supposed to but what if neither Rene Descartes, George Berkeley or Thomas Reid are correct in their entirety? What if both ways of thinking are actually linked together enough to make them both correct and both incorrect?Let us start with the definition of epistemology where the origins of nature and limits of human knowledge are examined. Human knowledge in the aspect of the real world is limited.There is no one on Earth who knows everything whether it be real or imagined. (Rene Descartes belief of independent external world) This would become limited in any thought provoking conversation. If you were to ask people at random, if there is anything they know with certainty, they would say yes. They know for certain they are sitting or talking or looking at you or the tree. If you asked them if they were sure that they didn’t just perceive these instances they would chance to look at you like you were crazy but in the end there is also a perception.Take the example of the mind independent external world and ask yourself that if you died, would things in the world remain physically the same? The bed you slept in might until it was destroyed, the house in which you lived may remain a house but what about you as a person, you would not remain physically the same so in that view a mind independent world cannot be 100% accurate. One day you can see yourself in a mirror because you are alive, the next day you cannot because you are dead.On the other hand, you see things and believe them to be out in the world but what you see is only a perception which lends credence to Thomas Reid’s theory. Thomas Reid believes that we do not need certainty to acquire knowledge and I agree and as you will see by the following poem, the timing of perception may almost destroy Descartes and B erkley’s theories. See how that worked, I believe the following poem will destroy a theory and this is perception. NOW What has been and what will be, cannot be changed, cannot be seen.For yesterday is gone and done and tomorrow lies beyond the sun, yet there is reality, that fine line between futures and past that we define as now. The eyes have never seen, nor the ears ever heard, the falling of a star or the calling of a bird. They merely transmit shadows, vibrations they receive, along the neural networks, for the brain to be deceived into thinking that what we see and are believing and what we hear; but do we perceive reality or only what we think is there?Now a millisecond past, from eye or ear to mind and another billisecond just for the brain to define, so what we perceive as happening is at least a millisecond past. We cannot exist within the now, our reactions aren't that fast. So is what we see a piece of history by the time we can perceive or do our senses touch t he future, which do you believe? Either way it's plain to me that there is no now to be found. We live two separate times so why are we so bound? Now that I've given you a thought to twist your mind, I must say excuse the pun, I'm simply out of time.(Original copyright 1999 Cara Tapken-(Teirsha=pen) ) In reading this poem, where is the certainty now as suddenly a lot of questions have been posed and suddenly a whole new thought process will evolve into the metaphysical sense of perception. Take another example of looking at a field or horizon of trees, or any group of trees for that manner, how do they look? Ok so they look like trees but in seeing the trees do you see them as you might if there is no 3 dimensional quality or do you see them with a much defined 3-D quality?Each one will see this differently at different times which lends further conveyance of truth to the supernatural beliefs and so with this in mind where does Descartes and Berkley fit into this picture? Let us use God as an example. God is definitely a perception. Many of us believe in him, many of us think he is almighty and the basis of religion but outside of pictures for one, do we really know what he looks like? This is a form of perception as we do not know with certainty what he looks like but we only know from pictures and words of description. What of prayer?How do we really know that prayer works even though we believe? Do we see our prayers physically being listened to by God? Do we see God there with an outstretched hand in receiving? Also, Descartes believed in God and God was the centrifuge of his Roman Catholic faith and theory so in believing in God, when God is a perception and written words then how can Descartes claim the theories he does because suddenly there is no certainty. The Roman catholic faith believes in archangels, evil and good yet without seeing these in a physical sense whatsoever how can one obtain certainty in knowledge or vice versa?With regard to percepti on and certainty, how can these philosophers be wrong and right at the same time by validating one another’s theories and if there is a validation of theories then do they suddenly have related theories to for a whole new theory? Descrates believes in no knowledge without certainty and Reid believes in perception. Take into account of the poem which is a perception based poem with much pointing towards the reality of how our human brain, through proven science, works. Suddenly there is the certainty in knowledge and how perception works and is very real. Both philosophers are now correct and both are now wrong.Did we just blow two theories away, add to them or validate all or part of the theories these two obviously share? Mind independent external world does exist to a degree but as well, only by the degree of perception until the â€Å"brain can define† (CL Tapken). Now Clifford is famous for his evidentialist thesis that â€Å"It is wrong always, everywhere, and fo r anyone, to believe anything on insufficient evidence. (W. K. Clifford). I simply would like to know where Clifford’s justification is for telling people that they way they think or how they think, simply because there is a lack of evidence, is wrong.I see him as suddenly wrong for being discriminatory in a sense as theory is based upon having no actual evidence for justification as science always dictates. The theory of using cancer cells to treat cancer is nothing but a theory, there is no evidence as it has not yet been tested to be proven but in thinking this way, according to Clifford, is wrong which is highly inconsistent with the continual forward progress of science. Now Berkley’s theory is much more rational in my opinion as he believes in both sides of what you can and cannot see.He believes in the mind and the thought processes that integrate a thought to reality and that one doesn’t need complete certainty for some knowledge and he calls this the la w of nature. He has a belief process in the realm of science but he couples that with a religion to form his belief that all things happen because of God and spirits. Now for those who are quite religious, this would be believed but then there are those who are atheists and or believe in the Darwinism theory of evolution thus suddenly, in either case there is no God.But is Berkeley right, to at least some belief that God is the reason behind everything that happens? Perception and gravity denounces, in part, if not all of Berkley’s theory that God is behind everything. The Bible and those who believe in the religion of God agree that God made the heavens and the earth. We will assume that this is not perception but true. But what of gravity? No where in history is it said that God created gravity. Gravity makes the world spin thus creating the â€Å"accidental† gravity. God did not create gravity by design so now it should be safely said that gravity began as a percept ion that turned scientific.Granted, our thought process began this way of thinking and proving this theory and that in itself would be a god driven theory in using Berkley’s theory. Look at the scale that sits in the doctor’s office. The knowledge to make the scale would be in conjunction with Berkley’s theory but for the scale to remain stationary due to gravity is outside his realm of thought as once again, God did not create gravity, therefore God cannot be behind everything that happens which, in the end once again, lends credence to pure perception.It is a fine line between these philosophers on what they agree and don’t agree with but in the end there are similarities in which makes them all correct in the way of validation so with this in mind, are they all thinking the same thing yet with different answers and does this make them all correct or incorrect because of their different answers? Which do you believe and why? Maybe I am the one who is to tally wrong and incoherent in my own opinions and beliefs.Maybe I have no concrete evidence or cannot fully understand the power of perception, metaphysical, supernatural or inanimate objects, maybe I believe in it all. Does what I believe in make me right, wrong, indifferent or simply this is my belief? Who is to say that I am right or that I disagree and maybe my way of being right or disagreeing is not accepted. We each have our own philosophies of life and the reasons why and this is what makes great debates and the world go around.So in the end I must say that I do not fully agree with any philosopher to date. I may agree with a portion of their principles and systems of belief but at the same time of incorporating my own reasons of this belief or lack of belief I, in my own self have just become a philosopher like everyone else, it is just the people who will determine the validity of my own views and will form their own philosophies.Philosophy is just that, no one is right an d no one is wrong it is simply a belief system of how we work minus any factual sciences or the addition of sciences and religion. As a last thought and question which incorporates all but none of these mentioned philosophers; is there really such a thing as an evil person or are they a person who simply does bad things?In short, I believe to some extent of what these philosophers believe but then again I do not for then I would have to agree with everything they say to fully believe in their philosophy, so am I say they are correct or incorrect? References Evidence for God. Famous Scientists Who Believed in God. (September 2008) http://www. godandscience. org/apologetics/sciencefaith. html Tapken, Cara. The Starlite Cafe 1999 (http://www. thestarlitecafe. com/poems/105/poem_91080479. html Theories of perception. September 2008. http://www. unc. edu/~megw/TheoriesofPerception. html

Monday, July 29, 2019

Historic and Environmental Conversation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Historic and Environmental Conversation - Essay Example The concept of historic preservation is mainly used by the English and the Americans but the other dialects refer to the same as â€Å"heritage conservation† or â€Å"heritage preservation†. The term is commonly used by professionals to refer to the preservation of the built environment as opposed to the preservation or the conservation of wildlife or forests (Forsyth 10). Environmental conservation is a concept that has a resemblance with historic preservation. The only difference is that environmental conservation is concerned with the preservation of the natural environment that includes plants, animals and natural resources (Mauro 4). The environment is defined as the sum of everything that surrounds a living organism, including natural forces, other living organisms that in essence provide conditions for growth and development as well as danger and damage to the living organism. Therefore, environmental conservation is a term that goes hand in hand with natural con servation that involves the protection of nature (Mauro 6). Historical Conservation The idea of historic conservation and natural conservation dates back to the 17th century in England. Members of the Royal Society of England often had antiquarian interests and, therefore, most of them were involved in conservation efforts during this time. This was done for various reasons; one of them was to conserve history for the future generations especially the buildings that had an impact on a country (Simon 335). These efforts by the Royal Society of England in the UK led to the establishment and adoption of the Ancient Monument Protection Act in 1882. Later in the 20th century, the UK’s Ancient and Monuments act was passed in 1913 to protect or preserve defined decayed and obsolete structures of great historical or associative interest. The act was because of the continued modernization that meant the destruction of the older buildings to pave way for the newer improved structures ( Simon 336). During the twentieth century, the UK government under the National Trust Organization started with the preservation of historic houses continuously increasing its scope to cover other buildings of historic significance. In 1944, the UK’s legislature passed the Town and country Planning Act and the subsequent Town and Country planning Act in 1990. This acts increased the pace toward historic preservation on a high scale. Apart from these acts, other court cases from pressure groups and movements also contributed to the first pace of historical conservation (Feilden 35). Preservation efforts in the United States began in the early 19th century with the preservation of the George Washington’s Mount Vernon in 1858. This was later followed by an association founded in 1889 called the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, which was the United States first statewide historic conservation group (Forsyth 50). Another historical building that foll owed in the 20th century is the Washington headquarters state historic site in New York in 1961. One of the first architectural firms that was famous in its bid to preserve historic buildings was Simons & Lapham. It was influential in crafting the first historical ordinance in Charleston in 1930. This gave the city regulatory means by which it could prevent the destruction of historic buildings. Earlier on in 1925, there were massive efforts to preserve the French Quarter buildings in New Orleans and

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Internal Analysis Paper Research Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Internal Analysis - Research Paper Example It defines the factors that are a part of internal resources and the factors that prove to be more beneficial. Moreover, this paper explains why internal resources or factors held more importance than the external factors as compared with the Porter’s (1980) five forces model. It describes how the SWOT analysis complements the resource based view. The Mokulele Airlines Hawaii Company is used as an example. Resource Based View In this competitive world, organizations are always in search of some mechanism that can help them succeed competitively. Hence it is necessary for them to maintain a good quality standard. In such era of technological advancements, organizations are trying hard to get at the top and trying to produce a product that can outshine products made by their rival organizations. This has lead to many new approaches, some of which have been successful and some not. Both external and internal factors affect the organizational performance. The resource-based view w as got attention in a book written by Hamel and Prahalad named â€Å"Competing for the Future† (1994). Basically, this view portrays a firm as a bundle of resources. Right type and mix of these resources enable the firm to gain sustainable competitive advantage. Resource based view emphasize on the fact that the strength of organization’s internal resources determine its success. In recent times organizations have shifted their focus from products to its internal resources and capabilities (Barney, 1991). Porter (1980) five forces model with regards to external environment used to hold importance at first but the drawback in that model was that it didn’t provide the answer to whether the firm has the ability and competencies to compete in the market and exploit the opportunities or not? So with changing times organizations are finding resource based view as more suitable (Jim Anderson, 2007) Although firms are different from each other as their resources differ but according to Porter’s five forces model (market based view), all firms are homogeneous and compete via their positioning in the markets. In market based view, the competitive advantage depends upon firm’s ability to find attractive markets having most favorable characteristics identified through analysis of five forces provided by Porter (Tamanpowell,2007). The difference in both internal and external approaches to strategic decision making was highlighted in Harvard business article â€Å"Marketing Myopia† by Theodore Levitt (1960). The article identifies common organizational problem of defining their markets too narrowly. Richard Rumelt (1991) conducted a research in resource-based view. His research has contributed a lot in the fame gained by this strategy. Rumelt’s worked on the firm profit differentials within and across the organization. His findings showed that the differentials within the industry were far greater than across the organization . This applies that the industry specific differences should be contributing to these differences. These internal resources can be grouped into three broader categories, physical resources, human resources and organizational resources. Physical resources can be organizations plants, its equipments, its technological assets or raw material it holds. Human resources primarily include employees of the organization with all their experience, skill and knowledge. Organizational reso

American Criminal Justice and Terrorists Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

American Criminal Justice and Terrorists - Essay Example This has gathered momentum and sanctity after the declaration of the global war against terror. The law does not allow physical power to force a terrorist to give out the secrets that he or she might be withholding. Whether it is the special purpose jails like Guantanamo Bay in Cuba or some many others elsewhere, it has been held invalid by various courts simply because no charges were filed on many of them. If the cases were to go to Military tribunals, violence could become the way of life. On 29 June 2006, the US Supreme Court4 ruled that the Guantanamo prisoners can not be tried by military tribunals. This was a land mark judgment and a major setback to the Bush Government. This also upholds the fact that the courts are having a different idea when it comes to trying the terrorists or as the US Government calls them, 'unlawful combatants'. And the courts find it 'hurting their conscience' when confessions are taken from people unethically, using torture which is either locally manufactured or outsourced.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Multicultralism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Multicultralism - Essay Example As the first man found his way to the trunk, he stroked the beast, calming and reassuring it that they meant no harm. The others eventually found the animal, and they spent most of the afternoon stroking and feeling the pachyderm in order to determine just what an elephant is, and to build a clear image in their own minds. As the sun began to set, the animal meandered off, leaving the men to discuss their experience. The four were each excited, and burst into chatter as they found their way back to the path which led to their village. "What a majestic beast the elephant is," said the first. "An elephant is like a large tree, strong and unbending; only with skin hard and strong rather than rough bark." This man had been holding the elephant's leg, and could only visualize the creature in terms he could compare to a familiar object. "A tree, did you get lost in the forest again" asked the second. "An elephant isn't like a tree. It is long, and winding. An elephant has many rumples up and down its back, and when it breaths, the moist air is like a windstorm." This man had been grasping the elephant's trunk, and he was sure that his encounter with the beast was the correct one. The other two added to the argu... The fourth had encountered snakes before, and this elephant was no more impressive than these. The four men became so heated in their debate, defending their own positions rather than listening to the others that their conversation ended in stony silence. Eventually, as they came across different paths in the jungle the men separated. Each decided that he could better experience the jungle by themselves than to continue company with a group of blind and ignorant men. Sadly to say, none of the men made it out of the jungle alive. Blind and alone, they made easy prey to the land's natural predators. This fable is an accurate illustration of the current multicultural debate. The parties debate who social order should be arrayed as a result of a multicultural mindset. The factions fight over verbiage, stereotypes, and even the purpose of educational, political and social order in order to defend their own perspective. While each faction has its own piece of accurate truth, the idea of creating a culture together is quickly becoming lost in the disagreement. As a result, our culture is more at risk of loosing the strength and protective power it once had when all our citizens were working for a common good, for a common goal, for a strong and prosperous economic and social structure which provided opportunity for all its citizens. Defining the elephant Harrison gives this rather vague definition. " a theory (albeit vague) about the foundations of a culture rather than a practice which subsumes cultural ideas." (Harrison, 1984) His input is about as helpful as asking directions from one of the proverbial blind men. But the idea is that a multicultural mindset is one which recognizes, and even promotes the

Friday, July 26, 2019

The Urban Thought of Jane Jacobs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

The Urban Thought of Jane Jacobs - Essay Example These books presented an in dept look into the perspective urban economics, growth of open ended methods and the basic essentiality of dynamism in the thought process. In 1992 she published another book named Systems of Survival that looked into the aspects of political philosophy and the interpretation of political philosophies but here also the theme remained attached to the functionality of urbanization and development related to urbanization and its ultimate consequences. The method of Jane Jacobs is quite different from her contemporaries who indulge into the aspects of thought process related to the facet of urban planning. Her basic mode of operation is a combination of different subjects like sociology, journalism and literature here the ultimate result is a well written book the looks at the parameters of a city from the perspective of the street-corners or sidewalks. He is not a person whose perspective or notion about a city develops from the cushion and air conditioned chambered point of view but she is more of a down to earth person when it comes to determining the nature of a city with its vibe and day to day affairs. Jane Jacobs believes that the basic health of a city depends on several variables. According to belief a healthy city must be serendipitous, spontaneous, messy and organic in nature. But at the same time she indicates that the cities to be really healthy they must formulate a planning where there would be use of mixed lands and not just a compilation of concrete structures that have just office parks and business plazas. She believes that the city must have human diversity, a good economic infrastructure and should have an agricultural mode. There should not be only office structure that replace densely populated neighborhoods for city beautification or slum clearance but should be targeted towards redevelopment plan that focus on diversity and well being. In her words "it (cities) should be like itself. Every city has differences, from its history, from its site, and so on. These are important. One of the most dismal things is when you go to a city and it's like 12 others you've se en. That's not interesting, and it's not really truthful." (Steigerwald, 1) It should be remembered in this context that Jane Jacobs never had the luxury of professional training in city planning. In fact the only qualification she had was her diploma from high school. This is an extraordinary feat considering the fact that her radical ideas as published in The Death and Life of Great American Cities reveals the freshness of a mind that indulges deeply into the solution statements of deep rooted problems associated with city planning and improvement. Thus her ideas of the variables to make a city more livable became very popular among many segments of thinkers of the subject and few even started to consider her writing as fundamental as the Bible. However, it should be remembered that the popularity of Jacobs also depended on the activities that she was involved outside the parameters of writing books and her active participation with civic activism and New York protection wings made her yet more popular. It should also be noted that though she was born in S cranton, Pennsylvania she later moved to Toronto and lived there till her last breath. There is however an

Thursday, July 25, 2019

David Suzuki, The Big Picture- the enviormentalist dilemma Essay

David Suzuki, The Big Picture- the enviormentalist dilemma - Essay Example He talks of the different aspects of this problem and the possible defense mechanisms that the planet may have in order to combat the encroachments of technology. For Suzuki, it is also important that one understands the importance of mankind’s position on the planet. The fact that man is one of the many species that exist on this planet is significant for Suzuki. There are several new theories that Suzuki puts forth including the idea that it is necessary for the ecological to be quantified in the economic sense of the term. This would then put a certain amount of pressure on people to create a world where the ecology is valued in terms that are familiar to the current market economy. This then makes us aware of the importance of creating a world where the ecology is not a dispensable commodity but something that provides us with an understanding of man’s relation to his environment and other creatures who have equal rights over the resources of the earth. Suzukiâ€⠄¢s main argument is that the ecology needs to be given his due and integrated with the scientific endeavors of man and in the economic framework of the world, without which there would be no sustainable growth in the world in any sector. One of the main arguments that Suzuki makes throughout his career is that mankind needs to come to terms with the fact that it exists on the earth and would not be able to survive without the earth being a place that can sustain them. The disconnect that man reveals when it comes to the earth can be seen from the fact that dirt is always regarded as something that is undesirable. However, this dislike for dirt is oblivious to the fact that whatever grows on the earth takes root in dirt and can be seen to draw its nourishment from the very dirt that is regarded with such contempt by man (Mast). This then reveals an attempt on the part of Suzuki to look at the tiny things in one’s life that indicate the attitudes that one holds towards the env ironment. Such attitudes then create a situation where the ecology is undervalued and not given its proper due. Its life-sustaining quality is then obfuscated and not given due importance. Despite man’s advancement in terms of science and technology, there is still a lot that needs to be done in terms of the conservation of the environment. The conservation of the ecology is a must for the sustained development since the resources necessary for development ultimately comes from the environment itself. This can be seen from this statement that is made by Suzuki in The Big Picture- †¦all of these things that so dominate our headlines and our lives- all of these things are merely social constructs created by humans. Ultimately they still depend on something else: the continued existence of a stable and healthy planet to provide us with the basics of life. Without a healthy planet to cleanse our wastes and provide us with resources, we will wither. Unless we can find a way t o live in balance with the natural systems that sustain us, our species will ultimately reach a dead end (3). The ideas that are expressed in this passage are important as they do not suggest that development of the kind that is fuelled by technological advances is insignificant. What it does suggest, however, is that there needs to be an awareness of the environmental impact that certain programs of development have. According to Suzuki, one must not devalue science and its effects on mankind. However, one must

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The marketing mix promotions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The marketing mix promotions - Essay Example (Lucas) One way to cope with situation is to constantly innovate and innovate fast with balanced business strategy with right mix of buyers both giant retailers to the small corner shops. (Byrnes, Berner and Zellner). Simply, if we take an example of detergents, they were largely promoted and viewed as commodities used for the cleaning purposes however the new paradigm shifts in the industry forced giants like P&G to look for more innovative ways of promoting largely popular brands like Tide. The new demands from the consumers, P&G through innovative promotional activities remodeled the same and Tide was projected something which provides an opportunity to be a good mother or good father or good wife. I believe the idea of enhancing and brushing up the bond between the commodity and its immediate users is not the case as Revlon since long has been promoting that they are selling hope rather than cosmetics therefore the idea that the bond between the end user of the goods and the bran d itself is not new. I therefore, believe that the positioning your brand as a proponent of generating the rarefied position of the brand to the level where it become almost a generic product with emotional attachment of users. Having defined the position that the Through Tide, P&G is rather selling an opportunity to be a good wife, good mother or father, I believe that this further necessitate a different approach towards the promotional activities which P&G use to employ in the past. Since Internet is now taking over the place of traditional advertisement channels therefore a more focused approach is required to direct promotional activities to the internet. As the presupposition that the brands must speak to the consumers eye to eye rather than just focusing on what product can do for you therefore promotional activities for media should be focusing more on building up rapport between the consumers and products

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Chemical Synapses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Chemical Synapses - Essay Example The process that must occur in the presynaptic axon is a series of events that lead to release of a neurotransmitter. An action potential in the presynaptic cell causes Ca2+ channels to open. An influx of Ca2+ into the presynaptic terminal causes the neurotransmitter, which is stored in synaptic vesicles, to be released by exocytosis. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft, binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, and produces a change in membrane potential on the postsynaptic cell. The change in membrane potential on the postsynaptic cell membrane can be either excitatory or inhibitory, depending on the nature of the neurotransmitter released from the presynaptic nerve terminal. If the neurotransmitter is excitatory, it causes depolarization of the postsynaptic cell; if the neurotransmitter is inhibitory, it causes hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic cell. Local currents depolarize each adjacent region to threshold. Finally, the presynaptic terminal is depolarized, and this depolarization causes voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in the presynaptic membrane to open. When these Ca2+ channels open, the Ca2+ permeability of the presynaptic terminal increases, and Ca2+ flows into the terminal down its electrochemical gradient. Ca2+ uptake into the terminal causes release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which has been previously synthesized and stored in synaptic vesicles. To release ACh, the synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and empty their contents into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis. ACh is formed from acetyl coenzyme A (Acetyl CoA) and choline by the action of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Hamlet, The Prince of Denmark Essay Example for Free

Hamlet, The Prince of Denmark Essay Much of the dramatic irony and dramatic tension in Shakespeares Hamlet, The Prince of Denmark derives from the interplay between the characters public and private personas. The face that each of the characters shows to the public contrasts with, in most cases, the private persona of the same character. Similarly, the private face or motives of the characters usually stands in diametric opposition to their public persona. The most obvious examples of this dynamic is, are course, the characters of Claudius and Gertrude who must, by necessity, keep up a fraudulent set of public perceptions to cover their crimes of infidelity and murder. These obvious examples, however, are no more profound or integral to the plays thematic impact than the likewise hypocrisies which afflict nearly every other character of the play. The almost universal nature of social mendacity is represented in Hamlet as being,in fact, the source of what is rotten in Denmark. The brilliance of the play exists, in part, in Shakespeares ability to demonstrate the way in which hypocrisy and being two-faced can impact all levels of society and corrupt even friendship and love. In many ways, the cast of characters in Hamlet reflect a social microcosm, with Hamlet, the young Prince, and Ophelia, representing the youth of society and the ghost of Hamlets father, Gertrude, Claudius, and Polonius representing the social establishment and cultural traditions which have fostered ongoing mendacity. From the very opening scene of the play, Shakespeare, with a knack for amazing subtlety, writes the following exchange between Bernardo and Horatio: BERNARDO Say, What, is Horatio there? HORATIO A piece of him. (Hamlet, 1. 1 25-28) Horatios reply indicates, according to critics of the play, that he is referring to the cold night air which has reduced him to a shivering semblance of his former self. However, the line can also be read as a subtle extension of the theme of mendacity adn meant to indicate that even Horatio, who will be revealed throughout the course of the play as a true friend to Hamlet, has been impacted by the rottenness in Denmark, the social hypocrisy which holds all in its sway. Similarly, Polonius, who represents the religious and spiritual aspects of society in the social microcosm of the play, dispenses words of wisdom to Laertes, acting the part of the wise and compassionate patriarch, a man of morals and God. Among his words of wisdom in Act One, Scene Three are the following observations: Beware/ Of entrance to a quarrel, but being in,/ Beart that the opposed may beware of thee. / Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice;/ Take each mans censure, but reserve thy judgment (Hamlet 1. 3, 69-73). Obviously, Polonius fails to live by his own words. He openly intrigues against Hamlet, immersing himself into a quarrel which was not his own, and after doing so, fails to Beart that the opposed may beware of thee (Hamlet 1. 3, 71), but ends up being killed by Hamlet on accident. Key to all of the ironies which are associated with Shakespeares them of social mendacity is the character of Hamlet himself. If the reader or audience member who is experiencing Hamlet believes in the heart that Hamlet is, indeed, mad, then much of Hamlets behavior can be explained by madness. If, on the other hand, the reader or audience member believes that Hamlet is simply presenting yet another social face this one in order to disrupt the hypocrisy of society then Hamlets behavior becomes a method by which Shakespeare examines the heavy toll which is exacted on the individual in a hypocritical society. There is every reason to believe that the latter context is the one which Shakespeare hope to achieve in the play. One good bit of evidence for this supposition is in Act 2, Scene One, when Ophelia, stricken by the state which Hamlet has allowed himself to get into, she voices her concerns to her father, Polonius. Ophelia describes Hamlet with his doublet all unbraced (Shakespeare, 2. 1, 85) and No hat upon his head (Shakespeare 2. 1, 86). His appearance is taken to be an indication of his inner-state, propelling the sense of social facade as serving in place of truth in society. Ophelia concludes that Hamlet appeared as though he had been loosed out of hell/ To speak of horrors,he comes before me (Shakespeare 2. 1, 90-91). The implication is that Hamlets disheveled state must indicate that he is, in fact, mad. Obviously, while Hamlet appears mad to others, he is plotting with great, rational precision to expose what he fears is the crime committed by his mother and his uncle. The sub-text of this is that Hamlet should be mad given the reality of the dilemma he faces. The great irony is, in fact, that he is not mad, but sane which will not allow him to live in a world of lies and hypocrisy. When Claudius and Gertrude react with horror to the play within a play Hamlets response is What, frighted with false fire! (Shakespeare 3. 2, 262) indicating his very rational understanding of the situation and of the reality of social mendacity. At this point, it seems that merely knowing of the hypocrisy is enough for Hamlet because when Claudius responds Give me some light: away! (Shakespeare 3. 2, 265) it is an admission that he, the King, and by association the whole of Denmark exists in darkness which is the darkness of social hypocrisy. Although hypocrisy is never actually justified in Hamlet, there is an interesting reason which is given in Act 4 of the play as to why people may be so easily led into hypocrisy and self-deception and that reason is: human mortality. When Hamlet observes of the dead that Theres another: why may not that be the skull of a / lawyer? Where be his quiddities now, his quillets,/ his cases, his tenures, and his tricks? (Shakespeare, 4. 1, 94-98) the reader or audience member realizes that the human hypocrisy portrayed throughout the play represents not only the lies and deceit necessary to facilitate human ambition in a corrupted society, but the human tendency to reject cosmic issues such as life and death and human spirituality in favor of materialism and worldly power. Works Cited Shakespeare, William. The Works of William Shakespeare Gathered into One Volume. New York: Oxford University Press, 1938.

Calculator API Essay Example for Free

Calculator API Essay 4Price Calculator API Updates 4.1RateV3 Response 4.1.1Modified CLASSID and MailService response values Appendix A 4.2RateV4 Request 4.2.1New enumerations: â€Å"Priority Express†, â€Å"Priority Express Commercial†, â€Å"Priority Express CPP†, â€Å"Priority Express SH†, â€Å"Priority Express SH Commercial†, â€Å"Priority Express HFP†, â€Å"Priority Express HFP Commercial†, â€Å"Priority Express HFP CPP† 4.2.2 added to allow for specification of the expected time when providing the package to USPS location: Between and tag, optional value HH:MM 4.3RateV4 Response 4.3.1Modified CLASSID and MailService response values Appendix A 4.3.2 returns availability of extra service for CPP pricing when a CPP service has been requested, e.g. Priority CPP 4.3.3 returns the extra service commercial plus price when a CPP service has been requested, e.g. Priority CPP 4.3.4 response node returned for Priority Mail Express and Priority Mail variants when provided in the request contains the service standard (e.g. â€Å"1-Day†) and is returned for Priority Mail Express and Priority Mail variants when provided in the request â€Å"1-Day†, â€Å"2-Day†, â€Å"3-Day†, â€Å"Military†, â€Å"DPO†, â€Å" † contains the scheduled delivery date (format: yyyy-mm-dd) and is returned for Priority Mail Express and Priority Mail variants when provided in the request 4.4IntlRate and IntlRateV2 Response 4.4.1Modified Service ID and SvcDescription response values as follows: Appendix B 5Domestic Service Standard API Updates 5.1ExpressMailCommitments 5.1.1 tag added to allow for specification of the expected time when providing the package to USPS location: Between and tag, optional value HH:MM 6Domestic Label API Updates 6.1ExpressMailLabel Request 6.1.1 tag added and will trigger the node in the response when the value = â€Å"true† location: After tag, optional value â€Å"true†,†false† 6.1.2 tag added to reflect acceptance time at post office location: Between and tag, optional value 6.1.3 tag added to allow the user to specify if the destination address is a PO box. location: Between and tag, optional value â€Å"true†, †false† 6.2ExpressMailLabel Response 6.2.1 node returned when true provided in the request contains the service standard message (e.g. â€Å"1-Day†) when true provided in the request â€Å"1-Day†, â€Å"2-Day†, â€Å"Military†, â€Å"DPO†, â€Å" † contains the scheduled delivery date (format: yyyy-mm-dd) and is returned when true provided in the request 6.2.2Label image updates: banner updates reflecting the name change from Express Mail to Priority Mail Express. For further details, please see: of information to the right side below the service banner text: Ship Date, Packaging or Weight, Reference Number, Sender Phone Number, Carrier Route (for USPS use) Appendix C for label samples USPS logos will be present on the existing label images 6.2.3Email notification updates to reflect the name change from Express Mail to Priority Mail Express 6.3DeliveryConfirmationV4 Request 6.3.1 tag added and will trigger the Carrier Release endorsement on the label image when the value = â€Å"true†; this endorsement cannot be applied to items requiring a signature at delivery location: After tag, optional value = â€Å"true†, â€Å"false† = â€Å"false† 6.3.2 tag added and will trigger the node in the response when the value = †true†.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Agile Methodology With Scrum Model For Software Information Technology Essay

Agile Methodology With Scrum Model For Software Information Technology Essay Agile methods may produce software faster but also need to know how they meet quality requirements. This research focuses to make the base of question can agile methods ensure quality even though they develop software faster and can handle unstable requirements?. To show how agile methods achieve software quality, compare the scrum model with agile processes. Present a detailed scrum model showing its software quality support processes. Then show the quality practices that agile methods have integrated into their processes. Finally it is the comparison of agile methodology with scrum model in the environment of Pakistan software industry and proposed the best efficient model in the distributed software environment Introduction: Main idea of this research is to identify the challenges and issues of an agile adoption in an organization and formulate ways to grab with those issues. And also propose a solution for agile scrum limitation Limited support for Distributed Environment [1]. Main Issue in distributed environment is Communication, I am proposing a several ways how we minimize communication barrier in distributed environment. And ensure that agility with scrum model is possible in Distributed Environment. Scrumà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦is a framework within which you can employ various processes and techniquesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦within which complex products can be developed [2]. Scrum Principles includes Time-boxes ,Cross-functional teams ,Open communications Within team With stakeholders ,Priorities set by Product Owner, Demonstrable results, Responsive to change[3]. Benefits of Scrum Targets Product Owners functions-of-value focus on team communications, frequent and ready access to knowledge, co-location improves communications, frequent demonstrations for early feedback from stakeholders, sense of accomplishment, quality of product. Scrum is a knowledge creating process with a high level of information sharing during the whole cycle and work progress. Its application also generates a strong culture with well-defined roles and relationships[4]. The key to scrum is planing the date of completion for production or release, prioritizing functionalities, Identifying available resources, decision about the architecture. Scrum offers a collection of empirical techniques that assume existence of uncertainties but provide practical and specific techniques to tame Iterative, Incremental and Adaptive Software Development Model. In scrum Project work is identified dynamically and prioritized according to the customers needs and what the team can do. Existing System: In every agile process development methodology there are some limitations with respect to nature of work. Some issues are highlighted in [5] for distributed area, sub contraction, developing large and complex systems, Safety-Critical system development etc.Existing software methodology has many issues in distributed environment. Now a days software development is doing by outsourcing the projects because in advanced countries cost factor is very important but the most important constraint is the communication gap between the owner and developer. To resolve this gap and to enhance the autonomy in distributed environment under the umbrella of agile methodology scrum model is implemented for dynamic development model Drawbacks with existing system Existing system (agile process development methodology) has many issues for for user and developer aspects. Disadvantages with agile: Active user involvement and close collaboration Requirements emerge and evolve Agile requirements are barely sufficient. Incremental approach to development and frequent delivery of product. Testing is integrated throughout the lifecycle. Frequent delivery of product Finally, common feedback is that agile development is rather intense for developers. The need to really complete each feature 100% within each iteration, and the relentlessness of iterations, can be mentally quite tiring so its important to find a sustainable pace for the team [6]. Objective: Numerous works has been done to cover all aspects of Scrum Development methodology but still there are open research areas which need to be covered. In every agile process development methodology there are some limitations with respect to nature of work [7]. Some issues are highlighted in [7] and for distributed area, sub contraction, developing large and complex systems etc, but still there are open areas where no significant research work has been done. Ensure that agile method with Scrum Model can ensure quality even though they develop software faster and can handle unstable requirements. PROPOSED SOLUTION: My Objective of this research is to minimize the issues and challenges of an agile adoption in an organization with collaboration of Scrum Model. So organization can successfully adopt and integrate agile with scrum into their enterprises for greater responsiveness to changing market demands and conditions. Ensure that agile method with Scrum Model can ensure quality even though they develop software faster and can handle unstable requirements. OBJECTIVES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM: The new methodologies should be developed and then it will be implemented in the different software industry with techniques and the results will be compared. New software size estimation methods should be developed. These methods will help in software cost estimation by using the different estimation techniques. These new methods will be better in software cost estimating, particularly for in the environment of Pakistan. There should be easier methods for Software development in the Agile with Scrum Model. It is comparison of old and new technologies. In the environment of Pakistan these approaches will be valid for software cost estimation. FUTURE WORK: Developing the new methodologies for software creation is an emerging trend in the environment of Pakistan. The approaches for software size, code, space and time estimation will be applied on the different software estimation techniques. Basically, the methodology proposes an integrated usage of available all these estimation techniques in different phases of the development life cycle. Application of the methodology in developing software by SD approach is also discussed. As a next step, the methodology should be experimented in various projects and thus will be enhanced. Some applications are also needed for applying the methodology to other software development approaches such as object-oriented development, Jackson System Development Programming (JSD JSP) etc. Also, the tool needs to be ported to UNIX environment. Review of Literature: Artem Marchenko, Pekka Abrahamsson (2008): The authors carried out an ethnographically informed longitudinal case study in industrial settings and closely followed how the Scrum method was adopted in a 20-person department, working in a simultaneous multi-project RD environment. Altogether 10 challenges pertinent to the case of multi-team multi-project Scrum adoption were identified in the study. The authors contend that these results carry great relevance for other industrial teams. Steve Berczuk (2007): Stated main reason that it is difficult to do work in agile with distributed teams is that distribution can reduce communication bandwidth. Co-located teams that dont communicate well can also fail with agile methods. But the rules of agile methods serve to increase communication and feedback. Any team is best served by following the rules of the agile method with as few adjustments as possible. Distribution increases the damage that non-compliance can cause. If the team feels like it owns the process and the tools it is more likely to be able to overcome obstacles and be successfull. Andrew Begel, Nachiappan Nagappan (2006): This paper report on the results of an empirical study conducted at Microsoft to learn about Agile development and its perception by people in development, testing, and management. They found that one-third of the study respondents use Agile methodologies to varying degrees, and most view it favorably due to improved communication between team members, quick releases and the increased flexibility of Agile designs. Barry Boehm, Richard Turner (2005): Their discussions with traditional developers and managers concerning agile software development practices nearly always contain two somewhat contradictory ideas. They find that on small, stand-alone projects, agile practices are less burdensome and more in tune with the software industrys increasing needs for rapid development and coping with continuous change. Wilton, P. and J. W. Colby(2005). Stated that most database management systems these days are relational with implementing agile methodology, termed relational database management system . These systems make storing data and returning results easier and more efficient. They allow different questions to be posed of the database even questions the original designer of the database didnt expect to be asked. Outi Salo (2004): Empirical results are reported from two XP (Extreme Programming) projects where the project teams conducted post-iteration workshops after all process iterations in order to improve and optimize working methods. Andreas Kornstadt and Joachim Sauer (2002) It includes discussion of the diary-driven development lightweight approach to documentation and providing a technique of introspection to help peer-review yourself. The experience reported on also covers what happens when you try to take these techniques successfully applied by an individual and scale them up for adoption by a typical small team. Adding relevance to a non-technical management audience, the presentation looks at these practices from a risk-mitigation viewpoint. It will help validate them as worthwhile for solo developers and debunk the idea that software engineering is only for big teams. Highsmiths J.A.(2000): The research project described in their report is three-pronged effort to investigate the issues associated with Scrum adoption. First, the practices that characterize the Scrum agile method will be stated, along with common variants. Second, projects that have adopted, or are in the process of adopting, Scrum will be surveyed to identify which Scrum practices, or variants thereoff, they have implemented and the perceived value of the method. Third, factors affecting Scrum adoption will be investigated. The objective of this research is to better understand the barriers to adoption and the leverage points that might encourage Scrum to be more widely and efficiently deployed. Boehm. B(2000) l: The paper proposes the component paradigm as a way to bridge the gap between model-driven and agile development. Service-based component concepts applied at the level of modeling, architectural design and development can ensure and strengthen agile development principles and practices. Components provide a way of building simple and flexible software architecture that can easily scale in size and level of details in order to overcome certain limitations of agile development processes. Material Methods This research is an empirical study .The existing published literature and research material, relevant to the Agile and scrum model are the first treasure of knowledge for this research study and provide the baseline to execute the research in proper direction. Online digital libraries and databases e.g. ACM, Springer link, IEEE etc, are the main source of information. Due to the fact that this is relatively a new research domain with insufficient academic research contribution I will also approach the online articles, success stories, case studies and personal experiences, shared by Agile practitioner, through the search engines. I will approach the agile practitioners who have experienced the Agile methodologies in distributed/Offshore environment[10]. And various research groups e.g. Google groups, Yahoo groups etc, relevant to the research topic, for getting the research input. I will also survey different organizations, especially in Pakistan, for getting the multiple responses, close ended and open ended questionnaires will be published to capture the views of IT professionals.. After approaching the wider group of Agile practitioners to get the general view point. In order to become more focused, I identify the group which are very specific and practically working in the particular development environment (Distributed agile)[8]. Structured and semi structured interview will be another tool to refine the respondent findings. The results will be formulated for this empirical study on the basis of theoretical frame work (literature review) and empirical study (survey and interviews with practitioners) The key to scrum is planning the date of completion for production or release, prioritizing functionalities, Identifying available resources, decision about the architecture. Scrum offers a collection of empirical techniques that assume existence of uncertainties but provide practical and specific techniques to tame Iterative [9], Incremental and Adaptive Software Development Model. In scrum Project work is identified dynamically and prioritized according to the customers needs and what the team can do. My Objective of this research is to minimize the issues and challenges of an agile adoption in an organization with collaboration of Scrum Model. So organization can successfully adopt and integrate agile with scrum into their enterprises for greater responsiveness to changing market demands and conditions. Ensure that agile method with Scrum Model can ensure quality even though they develop software faster and can handle unstable requirements.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Why Was There Stalemate On The Western Front Between Germany And Franc

Due to the complexity of this question, it must be broken down before an attempt at answering it can be made. Following this, it will be easier to understand the exact context in which this article will consider this question. By asking ‘Why was there stalemate on the Western front’ two questions are actually being asked. Firstly, why did a stalemate start and secondly why did the stalemate continue between 1914 and 1918. The second issue within the question is the section that specifically refers to stalemate between ‘German and France’. It is debatable whether this refers to conflict between German and French armies or German and French territories. Since British and Belgian forces had a significant impact to conflict on the Western front and the inclusion of facts concerning these forces is necessary to answer in full the question ‘Why was there Stalemate on the Western front’. This article will take the opinion that the question asks for th e inclusion of all relevant events leading to and sustaining deadlock on the Western front. The structure of this article will look chronologically at the start of the deadlock followed by an analysis of the continuation and eventual end of the stalemate. When war began in the summer of 1914 both Germany and France had distinct ideas about how war should proceed. Germany, being the initiator of conflict, had the advantage of putting its ‘Schlieffen Plan’ into action first. The plan called for a large-scale invasion of France with a large proportion of the German army moving into France through Belgium. Paramount to the German plan was speed. In order for Germany to be able to invade Russia without worrying about France, Germany needed to defeat the French in a matter of weeks. Due to a number of unforeseen factors, the German plan failed and led directly to the deadlocked situation that would continue for over four years. As a result of alteration to the Schlieffen Plan, the complete failure of the French plan XVII and the intervention of British, Belgian and French forces, a situation that could only be described as stalemate was firmly established by November 1914. The events leading to this began on 4th August 1914 when around a million German troops poured into Belgium according to the Schlieffen plan. This when Germany met its first major setbacks as Britain, quite unexpectedly from Germany’s perspective, immed... ...anes of both sides went badly wrong, a large and unexpected confrontation resulted in all armies digging in to hold their ground. Despite numerous attempts to break through these positions, good defensive weapons and positions combined with equally adversaries resulted in a deadlock that could not be broken until the sides were no longer equal and better offensive methods had been developed. Deadlocked trench warfare seems the only logical method for which a prolonged war between powerful European countries could take place at the time. The weapons, technologies and tactics of the time were ideally suited to a defensive war and both sides exploited these when their ambitious plans for a quick war failed. In hindsight, these plans may seem silly, as it is obvious that the French and German plans could not both succeed and it is now known that the war lasted more than four years when the people who conceived these plans envisaged a war of only two or three months. But it must not b e forgotten how close Germany came to victory in the early stages. If just a few small things had happened differently then Germany may well have won and the world may well be a very different place today.

Portrayal of Marriage in Wuthering Heights and Scarlet Letter Essay exa

â€Å"The convention of marriage is portrayed as a force which is detrimental to characters achieving their desires† Set in the North of England, the convention of marriage is prominent in Victorian society. This is shown as very detrimental to many characters in Brontà «Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s ‘Wuthering Heights’ leading to marriages in which, neither the bride nor groom know each other well enough to spend their lives together, causing a breakdown of their relationship and pain for surrounding characters. Brontà « shows that, without love, a marriage is unable to function and prevents those involved from achieving their desires. In ‘Scarlet Letter’, Nathaniel Hawthorne proves to the reader that an unfortunate marriage can lead to adultery, revenge and unhappiness, caused by traditional conventionality. Catherine’s marriage to Edgar Linton is motivated by her desires to advance socially causing severe emotional damage for herself, Linton and of course, Heathcliff, who feels total adoration towards her. The force of conventionality is shown by Brontà « here, as although Catherine is so powerfully in love with Heathcliff and has such intense feelings towards him, she marries Linton instead, with whom she shares nothing like the love and connection that she has with Heathcliff. Brontà « not only shows here the faults within Catherine’s character but also the problems within society at the time, that money and status are most important in finding a husband. Heathcliff views this marriage as betrayal, bringing out the worst in his character as he dedicates his life to planning revenge. By denying herself union with Heathcliff she causes herself and Heathcliff deep emotional pain. The convention in Victorian society of marriage being a way of advancing socially ... an obligation, where you were unable to choose your husband or had to choose for financial stability rather than love and companionship. The Church at the time of the setting was highly condemnatory against sin, most particularly in this case where a woman betrays the contract of marriage as men were seen as the most important and respect worthy in a marriage with women treated as second class citizens. In conclusion, one can see that in both novels the idea that the convention of marriage can cause many problems and can overall be detrimental to characters achieving their desires as in Wuthering Heights we see the torment of characters whom the marriage has caused pain and we also see the damaging effects of marriage in The Scarlet Letter as we see Hester’s love life shatter as she breaks the bond of marriage that was so sacred in the 17th century by adultery.

Friday, July 19, 2019

The Hunchback of Notre-Dame Essay -- essays research papers

In this novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (1831), Victor Hugo talks about the life of his characters in the city of Paris. This story takes place in the late-fourteenth century. With inequality all around it was hard for a person to gain respect without good looks or social status. In this paper I will mainly discuss the story of Quasimodoe Esmeralda, and their struggle in this story Quasimodoe`s mother was a gypsy. She could not take care of him any longer so she left him in front of a church. Gypsies were not liked at this time, but the church was highly respected. Being it that Quasimodo`s mom had left him on front steps of the church the king could do almost nothing. Quasimodoe could not leave the church due to the fact that he was deformed and ugly. Quasimodo grew very lonely and bored up in that bell tower all by him self. He was looking down one day and set eyes upon a young woman named Esmerelda. On the day of fools Quasimodo saw this young lady and decided to go do! wn and take a closer look at this woman. It was a holiday, feast of fools, when he decided to go down. When the people saw him they were horrified. He got whipped and lectured by his master. Well, to make a long story short Esmerelda ends up dyeing, and Quaismodo runs away and is never seen or heard of again. They state that in the end they find two skeletons lying in each others arms. One the body of a lady (Esmerelda), and the other the body of a man who was deformed (Quaismodo). It also states that th...

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Inflation always bad for an economy

Is inflation always bad for an economy? Inflation is a general Increase in prices and fall In the purchasing value of money measured as percentage; ways of measuring It Include the retail price index and the consumer price Index. One cost of Inflation Is that firms may have to spend money, time and effort moving money around financial Institutions (banks etc. ) so that they can ensure It doesn't lose Its value, It Incurs shoe leather costs as a result of this.However these costs can be offset by advances in technology, less human intervention is needed and costs are lower Another cost is that inflation leads to Geiger prices, these high prices reduce the competitiveness of the countries companies on global markets this reduces exports and leads to a dependency on imports, severely affecting a countries balance of trade. As imports are a leakage from the circular flow of income, it has negative effects on consumers within the country.Reduced exports due to high prices may lead to firm s having to close, this may lead to staff being made redundant and Increasing the unemployment rate. However, these negative effects may be mitigated If the firms with which the source entry Is trading with has a higher level of Inflation, In which case, the firms In the country will still remain price competitive with foreign companies.One positive of inflation Is that If you have a low and stable rate of demand-pull inflation It may lead to companies producing more as they expect more consumption of their goods. This may lead to them hiring more staff or purchasing more technology, either increasing employment rates or increasing turnovers of other businesses that make the technology required, all of which increase economic activity and have positive effects.Companies can reduce redundancies by increasing real wages by less than inflation, cutting costs but without making staff unemployed which would have sever negative effects on consumers and the economy. The economic costs of i nflation are dependent on a variety of factors, such as the degree of Inflation, for example: higher levels of Inflation always have a worse Impact on an economy than low levels, e. G. Hyperinflation reduces the functionality of money and also as low Inflation reduces the effect of shoe leather costs It Is clearly better than high levels of Inflation. Another determinant of the effects of inflation is whether the inflation was correctly anticipated by consumers and producers and whether inflation in one country is higher than the countries it partakes in trade with because if this is the case, measures can be taken to reduce the negative impacts of inflation.For example pensions could be increased to stay in line with inflation. If these factors are all set in a certain way then the effects of inflation can become positive, however generally this is not the case and inflation negatively affects an economy. Inflation always bad for an economy? By Chatterer Inflation is a general incr ease in prices and fall in the purchasing value of money measured as percentage; ways of measuring it include the retail price index and the consumer price index.One cost of inflation is that firms may have to spend money, time and effort moving money around financial institutions (banks etc. ) so that they can ensure it doesn't lose its value, it incurs shoe leather costs as a result of this. May lead to staff being made redundant and increasing the unemployment rate. However, these negative effects may be mitigated if the firms with which the source entry is trading with has a higher level of inflation, in which case, the firms in the country will still remain price competitive with foreign companies.One positive of inflation is that if you have a low and stable rate of demand-pull inflation it may lead dependent on a variety of factors, such as the degree of inflation, for example: higher levels of inflation always have a worse impact on an economy than low levels, e. G. Hyperinf lation reduces the functionality of money and also as low inflation reduces the effect of shoe leather costs it is clearly better than high levels of inflation.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Juvenile Recidivism Essay

Recidivism is when close toone returns to the same air that they were previously doing (Unruh, Gau, & Waintrup, 2009). in that respect ar m some(prenominal) factors that give notice the luck of up receive recidivism such as single p atomic number 18nting, and correct when the p atomic number 18nts become abstr manipulation in drug theatrical type. When youngs become proud guess for recidivism it is signifi orduret that the gravids whether it be the work forcetions, teachers or any adult in authority step in to armed service the new-fashioned to make better choices. By an adult taking an interest in the baby bird it dismiss pr veritable(a)t them from f intacting into a group that becomes high risk of infection.From 1984 through 1997 a 71% in that respect was a arise in disgusts attached by insubstantials that were alike violent offences (Jenson, & Howard, 1998, p. 325). Recidivism is when individual returns to the same sort that they were previously doi ng (Unruh, Gau, & Waintrup, 2009). Martin (2011), to a fault evidences that recidivism is (the process of atavism into wicked behavior) (p. 306). check to Nijhof, et al (2008), novel DELINQUENCY DOES NOT TYPICALLY fuck off with delinquent acts. Rather, it begins with nondelinquent problem behavior (p. 45).This story leave behind ensure at what could be the causal agencys not only when for juveniles committing crimes scarce move to the behavior of recommitting repeatedly. There score been some studies that were done and findings fix sh stir got that from 1984 through 1997 a 71% rise in crimes commit by juveniles that were in any case violent offences. They in like manner nominate that in that location argon 200,000 battalion participating in gang action mechanism in 79 of the biggest cities in the coupled States (Jenson, & Howard, 1998, p. 325).harmonize to Johnson-Reid, Williams, & Webster (2001), It seems more than(prenominal) likely that the call for of these jejunenesss went undetected before juvenile judicatory involvement for serious delinquent activities (p. 219). With all the studies that were done, from Afri corporation-Ameri mickle, to single p arnts, it was instaln that when a nestling lives in a step family, they jakes salvage do well. The reason for this is socialization dodging proves that it is an environment that the tiddler fuel solace grow in a goodly manner. The child is having its guides met in a naturing manner (Mullins, 2010, p. 13).Also if the p bents atomic number 18nt matrimonial when the child is born, there ar no effects on the child. The child is impact when there is no involvement from the incur while ontogenesis up (2010, pp. 13-14). The starting signal thing we motivation to do is look at is who may be at a higher(prenominal) risk for juvenile recidivism. There have been some researches that have shown that children with severe emotional disturbance (SED) could be likely posteri ordidates for the motor hotel systems that write out with y come to the foreh (Johnson-Reid, Williams, & Webster, 2001, p. 214). Problems in academics bed also be a add factor.For instance, if they are in classes where they may have take ining disabilities, they may be at a higher risk and find themselves in the speak to system (Sander, Sharkey, Olivarri, Tanigawa, & Ma rehearseth, 2010, p. 288). fit to Sander, et al, (2010), Negative aim factors include high retention rates, everyday use of expulsion or falling out in discipline policies, infrequent use of optimistic behavior strategies, ineffective schoolroom management, poor teacher- scholar relationships, and weak school-comm social unity connections (p. 290).So when the student feels a lack of support from the school, this fucking lead them down paths of juvenile ill-doing quite of ca victimisation them to want to do well. teenageds with learning disabilities and emotional disturbance are becoming prevalent in the chat up and correction system. A study found that the number of offenders with LD was 35. 6% and the juveniles with ED that was in the corrections was 16-50%. These children had the most falls of arrests which puts them at a higher risk (Chen, et al, 2011, p. 5). Another risk could be when the father is off from the youngs purportspan history and ethnic issues.When a child is growing up in an Afri dirty dog Ameri grass home and the father isnt absent, the results are as negative as any other race. The father cosmos absent tackles a bouncy role in the behaviors of the children (Mullins, 2011, p. 16). When a mother is an active state of drug addiction it puts her child at a higher risk of mental problems. A study has shown that the children dont lodge medical give-and-take for the counterbalance two years of their lives, which is only the start of the maltreatment that they suffer (Callaghan, Crimmins, & Schweitzer, 2010, p. 223).Suchman (2010), states that Parenting problems observed during the childrens first three years of life include poor attachment, responsiveness, adaptability, and structure pose with heightened physical activity, provocation, and intrusiveness (p. 483). What the child wedges or the lack thereof can be from the mothers own problems from her childhood (Suchman, 2010, p. 484). When these mothers had poor parents themselves it gives them a distorted view of how parenting should be. This some measure can lead to the mothers ignominiousness and neglect for her own child plus the use of drugs on the mothers part (2010, p. 85). Poverty can play a role in problems that children can face. The lacks of medical attention, poor academic success, along with psychological difficulties are some of the challenges that these children face. The alter factors that they face are drug use, abominable behavior, and not doing well academically. When these juvenility are constantly exposed to such parlous behaviors, it plays a vital rol e in the outcome of their own lives that can cause them to repeat the learned behaviors (Anthony, 2008, p. 6). Another risk factor for juvenile recidivism is when their parents divorce.The divorce can expose them to the difficulties that the parents are having and cause excruciation on them. (Elonheimo et al, 2010, p. 910). This breakdown in the family unit along with the lack of support for the children can be contributing factors. (According to Elonheimo et al (2010), tell that Divorce often entails stressors such as maternal conflict, poor child-rearing, transfigures in parental figures and re perspectivence, and reduced income (p. 910). some(prenominal) other factors that can contribute to juvenile delinquency can be when the child doesnt get from the mom or dad what they need in a positive elbow room. umteen quantify the parents effective dont know how to parent in a productive and positive manner. Sometimes the nefarious behavior can begin with the parent and it becom es learned behavior for the child. If one or both parents are abusive both to each other or the child it can become a contributing factor also (Latimer, 2001, p. 238). Whats in a holler? It does calculate what a person names their child. If the name isnt a popular one hence the child may become a delinquent or at least increase the chances.Its when the home is already be woeful poverty and the parents give their child a name that isnt kindly that the juvenile may become at risk for negative behavior. The reason for this is because your name gives off a message to others and this is what they use to determine what kind of person you are, its that preconception that we all try to use when we meet someone we dont know (Kalist & Lee, 2009, pp. 39-40). So if we are do by how others see us accordingly how does that leave a child when they are viewed in a negative modality by their peers, their parents and their surroundings?According to Calhoun, et al (1984), states that high self -concept was a product of golden socialization and steered male childs a look from delinquency, while low self-concept was the result of unfavorable socialization and house little resistance to deviancy, delinquent companions (p. 324). Juvenile recidivism may not begin with who is to deuced from the home, the environment surrounding them or even how the juvenile feels about them, but when a child goes from one delinquent behavior into committing negative outlaw behavior repeatedly, it becomes more of a problem. This could come from how they are treated in the court system.In 1978 the tonic York State Juvenile Offender comprise was passed and the effect on the courts was profound with the way that the courts treated juvenile offenders. For instance, in the late 1970s when there were some murders committed by juveniles that drew a constituent of attention, the courts used this to cut down on delinquency. The attitude from the people towards juveniles became punishing (Jenso n & Howard, 1998, p. 327). According to Jenson & Howard (1998), Legislation enabling states to transfer more juveniles to the criminal jurist system has had miserable effects on young persons violent crime rates (p. 328).By incarcerating juveniles with adults it puts them at a higher risk for some side effects. Many of these side effects can include, the juvenile macrocosm depressed, and problems with their mental health (Ng, et al, 2010, p. 21). It has been determined that when a juvenile is laid in a prison with adults, the receive is overwhelming for the juvenile. They dont learn to not commit the crimes but instead they learn an increased amount of criminal behavior from the adults they are with. They are also pushed almost by not only the adult inmates but also from the guards that are supposed to be in charge.They are subject to many offences from the adult prisoners in which they can basically do nothing about (Ng, et al, 2010, p. 30). The way that juveniles are trea ted by the court system also plays a part in how they controvert to either repeating the crimes or staying out of trouble. According to Vermeiren, et al, (2004), Juvenile arrest and court policies range amongst two extremes the justice get, which emphasizes threat to punishment, and the welfare model, which aims at treating underlying psychosocial causes (p. 567). Many times it is up to the people dealing with the youth as to what their fate may be.There are factors that can be considered which are how old the youth is, how many is in the group, what color is the skin of the youth, economic status, what the policies are for that area on juvenile delinquency, and how oft the police are watching that unique(predicate) place where the juvenile is picked up from (Vermeiren, 2004, p. 567). So it can be a matter of a juvenile being in the wrong place at the mighty time for them to get caught. It could be that the youth is influenced by a group of kids to do something that they would not have normally done.If policies can change from being hard on the youth to being involved with the youth to set up planmes to change their lives so the rate of recidivism may decline. According to Callagan (2011), regular(a) and frequent parental support and education, as well as medical and developmental reviews for the infant, have been found to be vital in ensuring a positive parent-child relationship, and best physical and emotional development (p. 224). So if the child isnt getting what it of necessity from the beginning thus it is likely that it will affect it for years to come.For substance using mothers that have been found to have abusive or neglectful behaviors towards their children, it was found that the mothers can change their parenting behaviors towards their children. The lack of attachment that is betwixt the child and mother can change by the mother receiving counseling. These changes can buy the farm in a limited amount of time (Suchman, et al, 2010, p . 501). Options for juvenile delinquents arent just putting them into prison but instead its protecting them from becoming at risk in the first place.According to Jenson & Howard (1998), Communities can prevent delinquency by designing programs that address known risk factors for antisocial behavior (p. 331). If we begin to deal with these juveniles at an early stage of their lives it is more likely that the risk factors can be reduced instead of waiting savings bank the problems are already there. What they gain from their academics can make a engagement also. If their academics are of a poor quality then that can put them at a higher risk of juvenile recidivism (Chen, 2011, p. 15).Some do of punishment is needed when it comes to juvenile delinquent behavior, but it should be capture and helpful. According to Ng, et al (2010), While they should be punished for crimes committed, the repercussions of punishment in the carcass of damage to mental health could have long-term conse quences that in the end reiterate into burdens for the society (p. 32). There are many ways of helping juveniles even later they are in the system and have a criminal history. A form of mediation called Family Group Conferencing or FGC.This is where the offender and the family and the victim would have someone who mediates between them. The outcome many times is to forge restitution emotionally and maybe even materialistically (Baffour, 2006, p. 557). When trying to help someone who has a history of criminal behavior it is important to do it in a way that it will be beneficial. According to Baffour (2006), Three major paradigms have been ripe(p) to address criminal treatment strategies retribution, rehabilitation, and yield (p. 559). We first look at retributive, where the criminal will have punitive consequences for their behavior. thusly we want to make sure that they get rehabilitated as much as it is possible, whether it be drug abuse treatment, therapy for them and for the ir family. We also want them to know that what they did was wrong and they should have duty for what they did. This will entail the victim being involved with getting help also (Baffour, 2006, p. 559). One way of intervention for juvenile recidivism is to place the youth into a program that has a limited time for them to stay. This would be a program that is community support versus placing the youth into a residential treatment program.While the youth is in the program they would receive help that included the whole family. For the juvenile that went willingly there was a decrease in juvenile recidivism as compared to the ones that were made to go somewhere without their live with (Latimer, 2001, p. 244). When looking at the issues with lightlessness males and how they do with having fathers that arent involved in their lives, there are some that seem to do well with it and some that dont do as well. A 25% incline of homes without fathers is on the rise in spite of appearance the 40 years. Some of these homes have not only the influence of the mom but also the grandmother.According to Cartw remunerate, et al, (2012), The absence of fathers is a major factor in many issues such as crime and delinquency, untimely sexuality, poor educational progress toment, and poverty, which have negatively impacted society (pp. 29-30). So with that being said a study followed v males that were African American. These males were found to be in college and grew up in homes without the father present. face at what made the difference for them that didnt work for many others that end up being repeat offenders in the system (2012, p. 31).What made the difference that was made for these males that others may of not or maybe they didnt have enough of it. According to Cartwright, (2011), (a) a male role model or mentor, (b) a supportive mother, (c) wanting to achieve an education, (d) respect for their fathers, and (e) resiliency (p. 34). For a boy to have a male role model that can be positive can be important because there are things that they arent able to take to their moms that having a male in their life can make a difference (2012, p. 34). These young men are assured of how they are viewed by the people around them because they are black.Much of societys influences come from what they see on television. It is important for these men to not be the way society sees them but instead to be the way they want to be and show society that they are different (2012, p. 35). The respectfulness that they felt for their fathers could have been what kept them from olfaction anger that many young men feel when their fathers arent present in their lives (2012, p. 36). By teaching young black children that dont have a father in the home that they can obtain an education it can help to get them on a right track (2012, 38).

Humour in ‘Pride and Prejudice’

Humour in ‘Pride and Prejudice’

Humour is a key theme in the novel â€Å"Pride wired and Prejudice.† It plays a major role in entertaining the interested reader and providing important characteristics and features of the chinese characters in the novel. Humour is shown in the responses of other characters towards one another and the episdary style, which creates humour as it is written from the point of view of the character rather than the own style in which the rest of the novel is written in.In chapters 1-20 the general reader learns about the character of Mr.Laughter might be a superb antidote to stress.In previous chapter 13, Mr.Bennet receives a letter from Mr.Collins in which Mr.Collins informs Mr.Laughter is the medicine.

poor Jane Austins use of the letter in chapter 13 is a very clever general introduction to the character of Mr.Collins as it gives the general reader a brief insight to his character last even before the reader meets him. The letter reveals Mr.Collins as a person with an astonishing pomposity.Folks remember a great laugh.Furthermore, humour is conveyed in Mr.Collinss consistant use of apologies about inheriting the Longbourn estate.â€Å"I cannot be otherwise than concerned at well being the means of injuring your amiable daughters, and beg parental leave to aplogise for it, as well as to assure you of my readiness to own make them every possible amends- but of this hereafter.† Chapter 13.Humor special needs to be impulsive, nevertheless it has to be planned.

However, after reading the letter, the Bennets all react differently to its style and content. These comments logical and reactions are used to contrast their other characters and perceptions. Mrs.Bennet is immediately placated by Mr.Dont forget that sarcasm what does not have any place in the faculty.However, Elizabeth many questions his sense, which shows her â€Å"quickness†. Mary commends longer his clicheed composition, whereas, Catherine and little Lydia are not interested as he is not a soldier. Mr.Bennet meanwhile looks forward to the enjoyment of Mr.Its very nice to tease and have fun try once in a time.

He criticises their home, which is humorous, as we see how inconsiderate Mr.Collins is. He also does logical not seem to realise how he may be offending the Bennets.Mr.There what are lots of genres in humor.Mr.Collins uses long few sentences in the letter, which portray the shallowness of his character.In chapter 20, when Mr.Collins proposes to Elizabeth, his speech is stilted, pompous logical and governed by the overweening egotism.Media serves to strengthen Americans stereotype.

Collins reminds Elizabeth that since she has so little money to her name, part she may never receive another offer of marriage, which shows the reader Mr.Collinss selfishness, rudeness and how inconsiderate he is.Humour is also highlighted in Mr.Collinss marriage proposal when Elizabeth refuses to marry him.Stress is a component in the evolution of sexual dysfunctions.He continuously praises her in his letter and compares her keyword with everything and everyone. He says how that she is an â€Å"honourable† lady â€Å"whose bounty and private beneficence has preferred me to the valuable rectory of much his parish, where it shall be my earnest endeavour to demean myself with grateful respect towards how her ladyship.† His descriptions of Lady Catherine de little Bourgh in the letter are very humorous and Mr.Collinss artificiality is reinforced.Often it feels the same to everyone, even if what many causes the anxiety differs.

Mrs.Philips soon realises that he is tedious snob.Finally, humour throughout â€Å"Pride and Prejudice† old has been successful. Throughout chapters 1-20 we see the various ways in which humour is portrayed through the moral character of Mr.Performance anxiety or fear of operation, is a well-known phenomenon in men who are worried over how their reply and endurance of erection.No matter the reason it remains a societal fear for a lot of us.Four things to do to make life simpler.

Change up your thinking and discover out how youre feeling.Among the most frequent thoughts are that nothing is likely to go right.Figuring out approaches to control or lower your anxiety can offer assist.Others armed might feel like they arent great expressing emotions or feelings publicly.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

An Indian Farmer Essay

* Introduction- India is an market-gardening coun shew. It is a shoot of husbandmans. They defy in liquidation and pass on in closure. They read a actu e actuallyy undecomposable heart. Their houses be make of accomplish stuck and straw. They argon actually dainty and naive. The farmers ar the true up sons of the motherland. Gandhiji give tongue to India lives in village. * His Dress- the farmers do not separate faddy dresses. They fag thin sincere clothes. mostly they persist dhoti, kurta and a cap. The women hire for granted affordable and simplistic dhotis.* His food for thought- The food of the farmers is similarly precise simple and cheap. They consume rice, pulses, jet vegetables and chapaties. in truth sad farmers get problematicly wry net and mirch-masala. A fewer robust farmers intromit suitable milk curd and stillter. * His reverse- The build of a farmer is truly hard. They relieve oneself to rick in their field in all the seasons of the year. In rain down or sunshine they essential work. They work from dawn money box new-made in the evening. They b separately waggon fields, plant seeds and hike crops. Their woek is very very hard but very useful. Our farmers provides us food, vegetable and oilseeds. * Fairs and festivals- farmers lead crock up in fairs and festivals with across-the-board enthusiasm. They wear colorful dresses, take rounds in merry-go-round, and pervert well-nigh construe goods and toys.* heavy(p) habbits- nigh farmers select naughty habits also. They imbibing wine. They atomic number 18 superstitious. They befuddle pestiferous customs. They argon unk nowadaysing as well. We mustiness try to engage their pernicious habits. * Politics- antecedently there was no governing in village. The life of villagers was simple. They love and co-operated with each other. The elders of the village were the punches who colonised their disputes. just now the governi ng of the cities has reached the villages too. It has fail the halo of the villages. The elections of the punchayats atomic number 18 contend with frequently moroseness and quarrels. This situations call for rehabilitation because villages be the grow of dry land. If they are poisoned the only of our nation leave alone be destroyed.

Sunday, July 14, 2019

Awareness and Adoption of E Banking in Pakistan

kidnap This body of work on aims to sympathize clients experience towards bridal and sense of electronic fixing in Pakistan. The outcomes would care the insurance policy organisers to induce go forful strategies for incoming panorama of electronic guessing in a coun take. The leads fire that relys clients in Pakistan dig electronic situateing as a implement for minimizing in lash-up, minimizing happen of carrying silver and condemnation saving. Customers b atomic mo 18ly accept that electronic margeing outgrowths chances of authorities entry to earthly busy info, amplifys chances of finesse and information losses.It reduces exist and just our curious meter. in that location atomic number 18 in like manner keep mumly limitations of e- riming as it requires skills to contain it and passwords move be hacked. This inquiry nakedsprint discussed that mass of Pakistan atomic number 18 substanti on the wholey informed of electro nic bordering merely they ar non squelched with the work permitd by the avow and they withal spright imbibess attempt in that profit thats wherefore they aver often on employees. It contains contrary demographics and their draw with search unbeliefs. The settlements shut down that non-homogeneous customers portions do non resist in opinions towards benefits and essays associated with e- riming.This radical to a fault includes recommendations in which it describes that what strategies the relys should deal to growth the contentment of customers Keywords electronic asserting e- depository financial institution buildinging customers acquaintance word meaning Pakistan, e- hopeing in Pakistan, e-banking, SMS banking, air I. unveiling The phylogenys pickings de bournine in breeding and communion applied science atomic number 18 change magnitude competitor in pecuniary institutions introwide. exploitation of electronic diffusion bring in pecuniary diligence has wholly alter the conventional bankcustomer valet de chambres birth in modern years.It has minify own(prenominal) contacts surrounded by the expediency contri howeverers and the customers (Barnes and Howlett, 1998). The scenario is however changed with change magnitude aspiration among banks and non-bank fiscal institutions (Zineldin, 1996). consequently an enhance earn of wherefore well-nigh heap pad peer little dispersional take and many early(a)s do non, on base an ack instanterledgment of the divisors that whitethorn baffle this conclusion is zippy to tin lavatoryvas (Patricio, cc3). thusly, the deployment of advance technologies is substantial to get to a emulous edge.In the world of banking, the familiarity of discipline engineering science has an immense establish on increase of more than than(prenominal) conciliatory throwments methods and more- dropr genial banking operate. late(a)(a) ly, the banking sedulousness was superiorly change by the engine room maturation that modify the political relation come onncy banks cede their ser wrongs, utilise technologies much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as automatise fibber instruments, ph unmatcheds, the meshwork, assent handbill, and electronic cash. In line with globular trends, electronic banking in Pakistan has been undergoing umteen other(prenominal) changes.electronic banking is a edge for the mend by which a customer whitethorn complete banking heavy proceeding electronic both(prenominal)y without tour a brick-and-mortar institution. electronic banking refers to systems that alter bank customers to entrance fee casts and popular cultivation on bank products and work by dint of a individualised figurer (PC) or other intelligent device. on that tiptop argon m both benefits of e-banking as it come throughs belatedly manner to superintend an billhook, we ordure shop, pay bills, demoralise items at auction, and steer bullion from anyplace at any clipping, it reduces constitutes, it saves time, and vice versa.Objectives This occupy foc aims on sentience and word meaning of electronic banking in Pakistan. Our objectives of this app atomic number 18nt motion were to 1. go with sense of electronic banking in Pakistan. 2. settle why passel atomic number 18 non awake(predicate) of electronic banking. 3. fuck if the tribe argon cognisant of electronic banking and so to how oftentimes cessation. 4. intercept whether banks of Pakistan be providing electronic banking or non. 5. To f completely out the decisive attri andes that customers assume eventful musical composition ripening electronic banking. 6.To fall out the give a means variables that affect customers evaluations towards fortune associated with electronic banking. 7. To control the kindred among demographic characteristics of customers and their per ceptions towards electronic banking. 8. To pledge topics and implications which atomic number 18 perceptive to seekers and banks fire in electronic banking. This search is of the essence(p) beca drop it tells bankers that how a good deal plurality in Pakistan ar conscious of and wed the electronic banking and to how much extend. It besides tells them to mend their e-banking function in Pakistan.electronic banking in Pakistan posit-own banks dominated the Pakistani m nonp atomic number 18iltary securities industry in front 1990. The organization introduced scotch liberalization policies in 1991 when 2 smaller banks, Islamic m hotshoty devising(prenominal) swear and ally commit were privatized. Since accordingly, the baffleing unceasingly advocated the privatization of live state-owned enterprises and further the snobby and strange banks to frame-up their businesses in the country. Recent eruditeness of topically owned coalition margin by touc hstone contract beach indicates immaterial involution in municipal help financial food market. sum up to State argot of Pakistan (SBP) yearly deal (cc5), in that location were 35 money reservation(prenominal) banks, including 16 private banks (with 797 wooden leges), 11 hostile banks (with 82 break upes), 4 privatized banks (with 4,141 severalisees) and 4 public banks (with 1,543 branches), individually. electronic banking is an innovation in the serial publication of expert wonders. change vote counter political machine ( standard pressure), address banking, net banking, source tease and government note entry circulars, etcetera pay emerged as utile pitch conduct for traditionalistic banking products.In Pakistan, contrary banks took a necessitate by introducing aura and assent beleaguers in mid-1990s followed by domestic banks in late 1990s. yearbook wrap up of SBP (cc3, p. 110) explained this decelerate off off in electronic banking f or the nigh(prenominal) part by restrictive everyplaceleap, higher(prenominal) startup costs, an on-going banking sectors reforms and neglect of proficient skills. The government in any fiber introduced electronic performance regulating in 2002. This regulation offer ups legal cognition to digital signatures and documentation. Thus simplification the trys associated with the enforce of electronic spiritualist of business.At present, nearly all technicalisedized banks in Pakistan fork out frame-up their standard pressure ne tworks, publicise debit and recognise bugs and perplex united one of the two run ambiance befuddle Networks. harmonize to Kolachi (2006) Pakistani banks turn in the succeeding(a)(a) online banking operate and products. 1. Enquiry, account line of reasoning doubt, account quietus enquiry, check report enquiry, stiff prepargon enquiry 2. Payment, monetary resource transfer, reference book broadside payments, assume p ayments, utility-grade bills payments 3. Request, chequebook request, invert payment request, conduct limn request, radical laid amaze request 4.Download, customer profile, overleap download, other info and guidelines downloads. 4 literary productions check out Consumers perceptions towards bankers acceptance of electronic banking ready sucked numerous hesitancyers in mod-made years. Thornton and neat (2001) who comp atomic number 18d septet scattering electronic convey addressable for banks in US conclude that customers orientation such as thingmabob, advant get along with, engineering science change, knowledge most reckon and handiness of net income alter the customs duty of diametrical conduct. accord to Hagel and Hewlin (1997) the network banking became real enthralling to customers and gobs of banks because the engineering is being cartelworthy by them and they derriere now understand and throw off training near the involved products. like a shot banks ar to a fault face up a split up of contestation and flying field a high market assign and digest intermit run to its customers so that they rump attract the new customers and grey customers do non try to take into account them. Howcroft et al. 2002) instal that the most principal(prenominal) factors that expect encourage consumers to use online banking argon lower berth fees followed by minify report card work and human misapprehension which later on slander the human animositys (Kiang et al. , 2000). Byers and Lederer, (2001 ) reason out that it was ever-changing consumer attitudes sooner than bank cost structures that determines the changes in distribution carry they added that virtual(prenominal) banks peck wholly be lucrative when the discussion section that elects electronic media is close to double the size of the segment preferring track banks. step-down in section of customers see banks with an increase i n alternate(a) impart of distribution depart excessively defame the queues in branches (Thornton and neat, 2001). mesh banking increases government agency of the customers to make charge likeness across suppliers pronto and easily, which after(prenominal) pushes the value and margins downwardly (Devlin, 1995). Although, electronic banking generates more other(prenominal) opportunities for the banks, it is as well the guinea pig that the menstruum banking go provided through net profit be bound referable(p) to certificate broadsides upholds, complexness and technological problems (Sathye, 1999 Mols, 1999).Risks associated to electronic banking Although profits provides many opportunities for banks but it is the cuticle that occurrent banking attend tos through profits be express due to shelter matter tos, complexity and technological problems (Mols, 1999 Sathye, 1999). Hewer and Howcroft (1999) referred the term send to measure a gamble. Whi le, Suganthi et al. (2001) viewed peril in mount of surety concerns and risk in scope of pull in ones bank. Finally, a number of studies to a fault engraft bank and comprehend risks switch a substantial prescribed enchant on ommitment (Bhattacherjee, 2002 Mukherjee and Nath, 2003) and at be leads towards overall propitiation (Rexha et al. , 2003). character of a work supplier is another(prenominal) valuable factor touching rely. Doney and carom (1997) delimit write up as the extent to which customers believe a supplier or attend to supplier is sightly and concern closely its customers. Tyler and Stanley (1999) argued that banks can advance close and long-lasting blood with customers exclusively if trust, commitment, verametropolis and cooperation atomic number 18 true betwixt them. Nancy et al. 2001) canvass comprise that customers explosive charge rough ready reckoner logon time which ar unremarkably interminable than making a shout cal l. Further, the respondents mat that they possess to check and recheck the forms modify online, as they are distressed just more or slight making mistakes. snitch reluctant answer time and survive of service tar causes customers to be shy to the highest degree the climax of a deed (Jun and Cai, 2001). hour and Galle (1999) give crashes in operate systems and fracture of discipline approach path as third estate factors cerebrate to involuntariness to use net profit channels for commerce.Liao and Cheung (2002) plant that individualistic expectations regarding accuracy, gage, dealing speed, exploiter friendliness, substance abuser sake and convenience are the most main(prenominal) attributes in the sensed return of profits-based e-retail banking. Confidentiality of consumer data is another primary(prenominal) concern in borrowing of online banking (Gerrad and Cunningham, 2003). Customers headache intimately psyches unlimited nettle to ad homi nem financial information. White and Nteli (2004) cogitate on why the profits impost has not been increase in UK as compared to profit manipulation for banking purposes?Results set that the customers liquid cast concerns intimately the credential and asylum aspects of the earnings. escape of earnings availability and a purvey of docudrama read for all legal proceeding are form distinguished hurdles in the development of electronic banking in Thailand (Jaruwachirathanakul and Fink, 2005). Laforet and Li (2005) nominate that economic consumption of carrying cash, less handiness of profit and accusative verification of financial consummation as key hurdles in codion, in topic of China. privation of particularized laws to govern lucre banking is another main(prenominal) concern for users. It covers publications such as cheating(prenominal) and shoddy trade employ by supplier, unofficial bother by hackers. Larpsiri et al. (2002) argued that it is not sink whether electronic documents and records are unobjectionable as adequate read of minutes. other issue is the legal power of the salutes and dispute law of closure procedures in case of exploitation lucre for commercial purpose. contention can place upright from many issues. For instance, websites is not branch of the bank.It is thorny for the court to peg down location of branch and adjudicate whether they pick out legal power (Rotchanakitumnuai and Speece, 2003). new(prenominal) risks associated to electronic banking are patronage losses, lose of opportunities to interact and development of trifling order were mentioned by (Black et al. , 2001). demographic factors sexual activity only is not a fundamental factor, affecting borrowing of engine room in practiced general (Gefen and Straub, 1997). However, Kolodinsk et al. (2004) demonstrate that marry couples are more believably to buy up the new applied science than either one masculines or fe masculine persons. query has alike think age and espousal of technology, as recent the great unwashed are more probably to get hold of technology (Lee et al. , 2002). adulthood in macrocosm in price of knowledge, trustingness and entertain in electronic computing device workout too increase mould towards online banking (Karjaluoto et al. , 2002). addition in income and teaching method necessitate anchor absolute personal effects on adoption (Lockett and Littler, 1997 Sarel and Marmorstein, 2003). Mattilia et al. (2003) indicated that young, ameliorate and blind drunk consumers are most credibly to adopt lucre banking in Finland. rise customers prefer personal service and a printed pass of their proceedings. senesce customers too perceive internet banking to be more dear(p) than paying(a) bills over the counter. methodological analysis The study was conducted in Lahore city which is the plump for largest city of Pakistan and represents almost 20 % of all branches network. Branches for tidy sum were selected on convenience fundament but after the consent of respective branch managers. work cover both residential and commercial areas.In this look for data is conducted by using misgivingnaire as a data prayer instrument, in which examinations were asked scratch from their statement on computer and internet consumption, quest with the cognisance of electronic banking and its types, more or less the benefits of e-banking and then some suspenses regarding their bank work and the tribute measures provide by these banks. The top dognaire includes close-ended interrogative sentences and they were on liker subdue of utilizing a vanadium point categorical. IV. empiric RESULTS in that location is panel which shows sex unused standoff with research disbeliefs no mind sex marrow P determine virile fe staminate person 1 sure of electronic banking 196 200 396 0. 011 2 Your bank provide s electronic banking deftness one hundred ninety 195 385 0. 000 3 awake(predicate) of SMS banking 196 195 391 0. 036 4 alert of earnings banking 189 198 387 0. 010 5 aware of atm card routine 193 198 391 0. 054 6 awake of recall banking 193 199 392 0. 272 7 snug with the E-banking operate provided by bank 192 198 390 0. 08 8 well-to-do with the security of E-banking provide by bank 191 195 386 0. 068 9 indispensability to use e-banking facilities in next 194 197 391 0. 000 tabularise shows the distinguishable movements and their tie beam with gender. first-class honours degree-year uncertainty is or so sensory faculty of electronic banking. bring respondents who answered this call into suspicion were 396 in which 196 were masculine respondents and 200 were womanish respondents. Its event shows that cognisance of electronic banking is pendant on gender. nigh motility was answe red by 385 summarise respondents from which the get along of young-begetting(prenominal) and effeminate were one hundred ninety and 195 respectively. Its numbers show that providing e-banking go by banks were passing strung-out on gender. trey one is virtually cognisance of SMS banking which was answered by 196 anthropoid and 195 effeminate respondents. Its go away shows that cognisance of SMS banking is also leechlike on gender. straight off the next question is some Internet banking sensory faculty which was answered by 189 manly respondents and 198 pistillate respondents and its result shows that consciousness of internet banking is hooklike on gender. following question is round consciousness of cash dispenser card usage. contribute 391 respondents answered that question from which the fall of staminate and young-bearing(prenominal) were 193 and 198 respectively. It results shows that ken of aura card usage is not parasitical on gender. witho ut delay thither is a question well-nigh scream banking sensory faculty so do 392 respondents answered that question from which 193 were male and 199 were female and its result shows that resound banking cognizance is not certified on gender. immediately the 7th question was asked by respondents near their ecstasy astir(predicate) e-banking operate providing by their banks and ingrained 390 answered that question and its result shows that atonement some e-banking run providing by banks is depends on gender. instantaneously thither is second gear last question which was answered by 191 male and 195 female respondents and its result shows that satisfaction most security of e- banking providing by banks is not depends on gender. determination question is nigh the using e-banking service in futurity and its results are highly pendant on gender. awake(predicate) of electronic banking potently protest disaccord soggy chink potently a ffiliate extreme sexual activity young-begetting(prenominal) 13 28 46 64 45 196 feminine 31 32 53 57 27 200 tot 44 60 99 121 72 396 immediately thither is a parry which shows the translation of the question, witting of electronic banking. It shows the arrive of respondents from potently disaccord to strongly agree. The highest figures of stack are concord round cognisance of e-banking.In male respondents 64 were agree which is 33% of match male respondents. Likewise, in female respondents 57 were agreeing well-nigh it which is 29% of centre females. naughty send out nary(prenominal) brain aboriginal trail collateral alumnus tweak relative frequency P-values 1 sensible of electronic banking 8 7 10 195 164 384 0. 000 2 ingestion debit or opinion separate for online minutes 8 6 8 191 163 376 0. 008 3 sure of automatic teller machine card usage 8 7 10 193 163 381 0. 030 sensible of visit banking 8 7 10 194 161 380 0. one hundred fifty-five 5 find out risk about hacking of passwords 8 7 10 192 161 378 0. 555 6 at ease with the E-banking service provide by bank 8 7 9 191 163 378 0. 269 more than trust on the bank 7 employees with colloquy than E-banking 8 7 10 191 163 379 0. 680 8 hope to use e-banking facilities in future 8 7 9 192 163 379 0. 69 In this fudge on that point is a demographic of gentility whose race with research questions is presumptuousness in above delay. no. bestride incertitude on a lower floor 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - supra relative frequency P-values 19 29 39 49 59 60 1 deplete full keep in line on computer 91 241 30 16 10 3 391 0. 034 2 affect in banking transactions 91 239 30 14 14 3 391 0 sense of service program of electronic banking 91 238 30 16 14 3 392 0. 004 4 Your Banks provides online technical assistance or 24 helpline 88 240 30 16 14 3 391 0. 002 5 occasion debit or quote card for online transactions 90 237 30 16 14 3 390 0 6 sensitive of meshwork banking 91 238 29 14 14 3 389 0. 443 witting of echo banking 91 240 30 16 14 3 394 0. cv 8 It provides leisurely way to monitoring device a account 91 242 30 16 14 3 396 0. 019 9 come up risk about hacking of passwords 91 239 30 16 13 3 392 0. 089 10 overhear well glide path to ATM machine 88 240 30 16 13 3 390 0 11 commodious with the E-banking function provide by bank 90 240 30 16 13 3 392 0. 47 12 conform to with the security of E-banking provide by bank 89 239 28 16 13 3 388 0. 004 13 to a greater extent trust on the bank employees with communion than E-banking 90 241 30 16 13 3 393 0. 036 to a higher place table shows the relationship of research questions with age. In first question it is asked about command on computer. This question was answered by entire 391 respondents from which from which 91 respondents had age less than 19.