Monday, September 30, 2019
In John WinthropÃ ¼s sermon, Ã¢â¬Å"Model of Christian Charity,Ã¢â¬ Winthrop uses persuasive diction and Ã¯ ¬ gures of speech to reinforce his idea of a Ã¢â¬Å"city upon a hill,Ã¢â¬ which is having absolute unity and conformity in able for the colony to prosper, in which others will look to as an example for guidance. His entire sermon is in a Ã¯ ¬ rst person plural to refer to the Puritans that he is speaking to and saying that they are a group that is not diverse. Winthrop states that they must be Ã¢â¬Å"knit together, in this work, as one man,Ã¢â¬ which means that every individual is meant to make a commitment to the group; that those individuals are meant to work together as common destiny. By referring that the Puritans must follow the ideas of being the city upon a hill, suggesting that they all come together no matter what their differences are to become a much larger entity, in which others around them will follow for guidance. Not only does John Winthrop insist o n the unity between and among the individual Puritans, he also searches in a unity between God and humans.Winthrop talks about the deep bond that the Puritans have with God; he is not only binding them together, but he is also showing the higher purpose that God intends to have. Winthrop states that is order to keep the bond with God they must follow his ways and keep their Ã¢â¬Å"Covenant with Him,Ã¢â¬ so they will be able to prosper. Winthrop is combing politics with religion that foreshadows this type of theocracy to come and also dramatically setting this as an example of a spiritual and physical unity that Winthrop seems to impulse on among his people and between his people and God.Winthrop shows his desire for his city upon a hill through his motivational speaking to the Puritans and suggesting them to have this sense of community to succeed their goal and to have faith in God and in his ways, to succeed in this pride of accomplishment.
Posted by Unknown at 2:42 AM
Sunday, September 29, 2019
One of the most talked, known and controversial issues today is the Internet. Internet is a large network made up of a number of smaller networks. Almost every computer in an educational facility and in home and small office use is connected to some type of a network. People spent a lot of time on the Internet, which may make them seem isolated. However, the Internet does not foster isolation, because it may be used for many different things like communication, education, problem solving and etc. The concept for the Internet was to make a link in to a new world, a world that has many different opportunities within its self. To gives the people options to go to China, Italy, and Egypt without spending a lot of money on the trip. To open new experiences and ideas that are just a click of a button away. The idea of going on to the internet for almost every thing may make the person seem isolated. Isolated from people, form culture, from education, from communication to other people, but in reality they are not isolated. The internet gives variety. It might not give physical opportunity to visit Japan or Russia, but it gives almost the same emotional and cultural experiences. A person does not have to read a newspaper on the train or go to an art gallery to be cultured and not seem isolated; a person just has to do what feels right at a certain time. The Internet also gives a misconception about communication. Internet is a different world that has the idea of communication in a different perspective. To communicate people donÃ¢â¬ t have to see one another, or hear one another they just have to be able to understand one another. The Internet provides just that. This may seem like isolation because no physical contact is present, and some or all of the things that are said might not be true. This is a misconception. People that are talking face to face with one another might be lying or might not be; the same is said for the Internet conversations. Ã¢â¬Å"People whose physical handicaps make it difficult to form new friendships find that virtual communities treat them as they always wanted to be treatedÃ¢â¬ (Rheingold 206). Equality and understanding is the key, and the virtual community provides that and much more. Advice is also one of the keys for equality and understanding. As we all know advice in todayÃ¢â¬ s world is not free, and most of the time you need to make an appointment to get that expansive help. The internet provides advice that is free and at the same time on the spot. In Urbana, Illinois, the Federal Department of Education has set up a network for parents, teachers, community workers, and etc. that have questions concerning children, financial assistance, educational assistance, and etc (Thomas). The Internet is not only for fun and games, but it is also for problem solving of all types. This is not the only site of this sort; Howard Reingold logged onto the Well, when he needed an answer in a matter of seconds. What amazed him when he logged on Ã¢â¬Å"wasnÃ¢â¬ t just the speed with which we obtained precisely the information we neededÃ¢â¬ ¦it was also the immense inner sense of security that comes with discovering that real peopleÃ¢â¬ ¦are available, around the clock, if you need themÃ¢â¬ (Rheingold 202). The idea of Internet advice may seem like isolation, but it is not. It helps people with real problems to get real advice. The ones giving advice once were getting some type of advice. The idea behind these help links are for real people to talk to real people not necessarily professionals, but with people who had real life experiences, and who see it on a more personal level. This gives emotional support to those who need it and trust that just comes along. Although the internet brings communication to different communities as well as different individuals, it also plays as an educational source. Many educational facilities are starting to conduct courses on the Internet. They are also using Ã¢â¬Å"Web pages to post class materials and other resourcesÃ¢â¬ (Mendels) for student on the Internet for faster and easier access by the students. Some educators are also requesting and requiring for their students to have an e-mail address. An e-mail address gives less paper work for the professor, and an easier access of the professor for questions and faster responses. Since the demand of computer knowledge has increased, this is a perfect way to start learning. The Internet also provides a wide variety of encyclopedias, newspapers, magazines, etc, for educational reasons, and the more people will use the Internet the more they will learn. Education does not have to be the old fashion way, it has to provide and teach different experiences th at may not otherwise be available. The Internet is a world that is available to each and every person, but how that person uses it, is how the opinion of isolation forms. If each and every person would use the Interne for education, than there would be too many educated people. We are all very lucky that we have so much opportunity in our access, but a lot of us donÃ¢â¬ t know how to use it, and for what. ThatÃ¢â¬ s where education plays a big role, it does two things at once gives general and computer knowledge. The more we learn the more we know, and isolation is not one of the thing that the Internet provides.
Posted by Unknown at 1:33 AM
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Financial Upheavals - Assignment Example On the other hand, the Great Recession of 2008 is the most recent economic downturn in country, the pangs of which are being felt even today. Both these financial upheavals share similarities in terms of their causes and consequences. They led to extensive loan foreclosures, bank failures, high unemployment rates and a slump in manufacturing sector. The reason for the panic of 1819 can be attributed to the economic system of the United States (Rothbard 2002). It was the panic of 1819 that brought the grand economic expansion following the War of 1812 to an end. Inflation, debtorsÃ¢â¬â¢ relief which was invariably tied with monetary schemes and a protective tariff played a pivotal role in creating the situation of panic in the country at that time. On the other hand, the onset of the Recession of 2008 can be attributed to complex and interlinked factors. Sub-prime lending, loose monetary policy, global imbalances and lax financial regulation were responsible for the latest financial upheaval that has had the entire world reeling. Proposal is hereby made to write a detailed paper which will compare and contrast these two historic financial upheavals; the earliest and the latest to have rocked the United States of America with special emphasis on the role of the monetary policy in each
Posted by Unknown at 12:22 AM
Friday, September 27, 2019
World Trade Organisations - Essay Example The WTO aims mainly at providing assistance for the producers of goods and services, exporters and also importers for basically conducting their businesses effectively (WTO, 2010). Applying to the WTO for a trade dispute is based in a series of steps. These include, firstly, becoming a member of the WTO, following which the first stage includes the consultation which lasts for almost 60 days. Here the aim is to identify if the parties are able to find a solution between themselves and all the implementation of the rulings and recommendations are constantly monitored by the WTO (UNDERSTANDING THE WTO, 2010). Post this stage of the application, the panel is introduced to the parties and the Dispute Settlement Body. Here this groups work toward providing the final ruling or recommendations to the two countries. The types of cases and disputes that are introduced in the WTO for solutions are very varied and come from various backgrounds. Of these one of the most famous cases of a trade dispute was that of the Caribbean bananas which was initiated in September 1997 and went on to become a world famous case. The case was initiated by the US government on behalf of a US based brand - Chiquita Brands against the Europes LomÃ © Convention which gave preference to the small banana producers and provided a chance for exports to across the world (Costantini, 2001). Here in this case the ruling of the WTO was to ensure that no discrimination is made based on the where or how the food was produced and also no discrimination based on how the food was created. The ruling led to an impact on the European Unions and the trade agreements with the African Caribbean and Pacific countries (Costantini, 2001). As explained by the WTO in the list of its cases, the outcome for the case was as follows, Ã¢â¬Å"The U.S. and E.U. reached an agreement to begin to dismantle the barriers to
Posted by Unknown at 1:06 AM
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Perspectives of John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner and Edward C. Tolman - Essay Example While discussing on Skinners theory Mclntyre says Ã¢â¬Å"He rejected the idea of inner causes for behavior, and placed emphasis on observable behavior as opposed to the theorizing, based on unverifiable evidence, often done by others" (Mclntyre, 2003).Skinner believed that the reappearance of a behavior was solely due to the consequences present at the time of reappearance. He firmly believed that the progression of a certain behavior can be hindered with a chain of reinforcements like a behavior pattern being rewarded every time will eventually result in the behavior getting vanished. While SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is still practiced in modern psychology, animal trainers, who take the help of Ã¢â¬Å"operant conditioningÃ¢â¬ to discipline the animals, frequently use it. This will mean conditioning of the animal to produce a behavior motivated by reward.While both Watson and Skinner may have similar outlook on behavior, there is a major difference. Skinner believed that due importan ce should be given to the inner part of the behavior like thinking, feeling including emotions, while considering overall behavior of the person. Watson was of the opinion that such mental states cannot be studied scientifically and thus should not be used for referencing the behavior patterns.On the other hand, Tolman was not a radical behaviorist like Skinner. Tolman believed that the behavior was not just an automatic response to the stimulation of a reward.. He believed that learning could occur without the use of a rein forcer.
Posted by Unknown at 9:22 AM
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Read an article - Essay Example However, a contradiction in this theory came in the form of Hayek, who believes that it is not a problem of lack of private property, rather; the lack of knowledge that presents a challenge to socialism (Hoppe 143). This paper will examine the author of Socialism: A Property or Knowledge Problem and his line of thought. This is while focusing on what ideas he might offer the audience in terms of the concepts of socialism, and how it might affect them. Hans-Hermann Hoppe chose to discredit Hayek with his theory, saying that it was completely false and ridiculous. In an effort to discredit Hayek and his school of thought, he brings forth arguments to support MisesÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis. MisesÃ¢â¬â¢s thesis advocates for the presence of private property in land and production factors for there to be proper channels of economic calculation. There being a medium of exchange in the form of money, it would then be possible to calculate and make comparison of the economic situation. Hoppe makes the assumption that Hayek does not have the right arguments to support his thesis about socialism. Hayek purports that socialism and its ultimate flaw is that knowledge about certain circumstances of place and time exist in widely dispersed form, as the personal possession of various individuals (Hoppe 144). Hoppe may have an inclination toward MisesÃ¢â¬â¢s school of thought. ... The author, Hoppe, criticizes Hayek by asking a question that would be on the minds of the audience about why clubs, firms, and families exist if his line of thought were to be true. It is HayekÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that a decentralized use of knowledge may lead to the solving of socialismÃ¢â¬â¢s ills. In this decentralized use of knowledge, individuals are left to their own devices and can make their decisions (Hoppe 144). To some extent, the above may be true. However, the author tries to explain that when individuals are left to their own decision making abilities, it would be next to impossible to ignore the central plan, as they would not be constrained by the normal things in society. He further claims that if the deciding factor or the solution to socialismÃ¢â¬â¢s problems was a decentralized form of thinking, it would be a daunting task to explain why the problems faced by socialism are different from those faced by any other social order. According to Mises and his followers, this line of thought is beside the point. Hoppe points out that it is not the existence of centralized knowledge, or the lack of the use of decentralized knowledge that brings problems to socialism, rather; the absence of property. This ultimately leads to the lack or absence of prices (Hoppe 145). The author claims that Hayek came to realize what Mises had said, but tried to integrate it into his own thesis. This, according to Hoppe, was an elaborate attempt to create a higher and much better theory or line of thinking with regards to the socialism theory, which failed miserably. It is clear from the above that agreeing that socialismÃ¢â¬â¢s central or key problem lies in the lack of knowledge. According to the author, private property is the only channel through which information can be transferred.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
The New Terrorism - Essay Example This modern structure is in the forms of a network, eased by information technology, the modern personnel are amateurs, who in most case, collaborate in ad hoc or transitory groups, as well as the modern attitude an intensified willingness of causing mass casualties, maybe by using weapons of chemical, biological, nuclear or radiological (CBNR). Both network organizations, along with amateur participation have the perception that the "new terrorists" are no longer in need of state sponsorship compared to their predecessors thereby being extremely dangerous or at least extremely difficult in countering than its predecessor (Andrew & Kumar 2002, p.10). Terrorists have the capability and willingness of developing network king of organization for similar reasons as those of businesses. This is the necessitated by the information revolution, which lowers the cost of communication, thereby permitting organizations in pushing for functions out of a controlling hierarchical structure. Theref ore, organizations are capable of flattening out their pyramids of authority, while, at the same time, controlling and approaching a network form, a grouping of more or less independent, dispersed entities, connected by developed communications and maybe nothing more than a common reason. Motivating or forcing the shift from hierarchy to network happens to be the advantages acquired by an organization while transforming itself (Gutteridge 1986, p.35). It turns out to be more supple, adaptive, as well as resilient since each of its units is capable of sensing and reacting on its own in unfastened integration with the others. This increases the opportunities for the organization for learning, while making it extremely flexible, as well as adaptive. The organization turns out to be extremely resilient since if one or even a number of its constituent entities get destroyed, the others are persistent; therefore, a network, not like a hierarchy, is incapable of getting destroyed through d ecapitation. In terroristsÃ¢â¬â¢ case, there is a possibility that the loosely connected autonomous entities making up a network could be individuals, for instance Ramzi Yousef accredited for organizing the World Trade Center bombing. There is also a possibility that the entities framing terrorist networks could be large, formal, or hierarchical organizations thereby working altogether devoid of any common hierarchy or main commanding authority amongst them. No matter what the constituents of the network are, the absence of this innermost authority or control is what makes it a network. It is this characteristic giving networks their suppleness, adaptiveness, as well as resilience, permitting them gains over organizations such as the U.S. government, which seem to be hierarchical industrial-age relics (Hallstorm 2011, p.51). An ideal example of manifestation of this networking happens to be the propagation of the amateur terrorist, along with the ad hoc terrorist grouping. Amateur s collaborate with the like-minded in conducting a terrorist attack and eventually getting disbanded. They do not undergo training or other logistical backing from state-sponsors; rather depend on networks of supporters, studying what is necessary from publications or the Internet or dismissed soldiers.
Posted by Unknown at 1:18 PM
Monday, September 23, 2019
The Evolution of Multi-National Enterprises Responses to The Challenges of Globalization - Research Paper Example The heterogeneity of the work involved also has become more complex just as in the case of coordination of multiple salary currencies. More research and involvement on the differential operative needs of the company including their staffing policy is also much challenging. However, the process of globalization is, in turn, a matter of scope for companies as it would enable them with the choice of a wide selection of manpower and a diverse market scope spread across the globe. This process has also equipped the management with better connectivity with its counterparts across the globe which is within itself a quality assurance process. Globalization has provided the personnel managers with sufficient choices of capacity building processes for their staff. Diversity within the team enables the management of a wider thought process with differential insights on varied market requirements. So as to formulate the strategic policies pertaining to globalization, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to analyze the range of diversity caused due to globalization. This section of the essay critically analyses the various challenges that the Multi-National Enterprises may face in the context of globalization. With reference to each of these concerns possible responsible by the leaders and the companies also has been explained. A modern definition of culture is Ã¢â¬Å"the shared ways in which groups of people understand and interpret the world (Fons & Charles 1997,p.3-4). A diversity in the interpretation and understanding as defined by Fons & Charles is very possible to be experienced within any team of modern days mainly due to the resultants of globalization namely in- sourcing and outsourcing. Moreover, the policies on the exchange of manpower among different nationalities promoted by the shortage of skilled manpower in many countries have led many workingÃ groups to hire people belonging to different countries with diverse cultures.
Posted by Unknown at 12:10 PM
Sunday, September 22, 2019
A play written by J. B. Priestly Essay An Inspector Calls, a play written by J. B. Priestly in 1945. He set his play in 1912 just before the First World War. It is a story of the visit by an Inspector to an apparently normal family, the Birlings. The Birlings are celebrating their daughter Shelias engagement to Gerald Croft. Mr. Birling a successful factory owner gets the ball rolling with a speech, which he gives to his son Eric, and Gerald Croft. J. B Priestly makes good use of dramatic irony in this speech because many events took place after 1912, which we the modern audience, know about but Mr. Birling doesnt. Mr. Birling mentioned that the miners came out on a strike and there would be possible labour trouble in the near future. He said that there wouldnt be any more worries about the strikes. But in 1926 we know that there was a General Strike in Britain. He talks about the Titanic being a spectacular ship with every luxury and it is absolutely unsinkable. But as we know in 1912 the Titanic sunk on maiden voyage and 1,513 lives were lost. He also mentioned about the wars not happening. He said that the Germans dont want war. But in 1914 the First World War broke out. He said that there would peace and prosperity and rapid progress everywhere but in 1917 there was revolution in Russia. In 1939 the Second World War broke out and in 1945 the atomic bombs were dropped on Japan. This makes the audience doubt Mr Birling early on in the play. When Mr. Birling finishes his speech the Inspector enters into the scene. The Inspector is at the Birlings because there was a death of a woman Eva Smith and he had come to ask questions about her. Mr. Birling was the first person that we were led to believe started off the train of events that ultimately led to the death of Eva Smith. Mr. Birling had sacked Eva Smith from his factory after she started to cause trouble demanding higher wages. Mr Birling says that any man in his position would have done the same. She was making trouble as Mr. Birling said, She had a lot to say far too much so she had to goi. But the only thing that Mr. Birling cared about was his family and the progress of his business. He didnt care about his workers and he didnt know them. As he says in Act 1 I have a couple of hundred workers under me, who keep changing. So there wasnt a personal relationship between these two until after the workers came back from their holidays that they were asking for a pay rise. As Mr. Birling wouldnt, he sacked the ringleaders and one of them was Eva Smith. Now that Eva was sacked she was out of work for two months. She had no money and she was half starved. She had no one to help her. Her parents had died so they couldnt offer any help and her friends had nothing to offer her. But then again it wasnt the end of the world and she was capable of getting another job as we find out.
Posted by Unknown at 11:00 AM
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Essay Franklin Delano Roosevelt is indisputably the greatest President of the United States of America in the 20th century. Ascending to the highest office despite his crippling poliomyelitis condition, he epitomized transformation never before seen in American soil (Cashman 1989). Identifying himself with the multitudes forgotten at the base of the base of the economic pyramid, he inspired and led the New Deal; a complex and comprehensive legislation program designed to raise all Americans from the Great Depression and serve as a remedy to the inequalities inherent in the American social structure. Under the same deal, the United States military and domestic strategies were directed to the World War II, the victories thereof brought the United States to the pinnacle of global economic and unchallenged military superiority. The United States, his country over which he presided, in unmatched adoration elected him four times: a feat unmatched in the history of the American presidency. For the twelve years in White House, he was the personification of the response of all Americans to the Great Depression. As the World War II drew on he never failed the American populace. For the twelve years, unparalleled crisis tormented the United States and not a single citizen was spared. Never, in the history of the Presidency had a president identified with each and every citizen, bearing even greater responsibility as he pushed his metal capacities to the limit to save Americans from the bites of the Great Depression. Sitting on a wheel chair in the Oval office he witnessed and participated in greater changes not only in his country but the world over. His administration remains a major watershed in the history of the United States. In 1933 when he took the oath of office, America was no more than a land of small town values with small government and completely isolated from global affairs. This was the America he was handed at the inauguration; an America still presided over by the Protestant and the Anglo-Saxon elites, an America of economic laissez-faire, of Prohibition, and a country of the Model T Ford (Heale 1999). Twelve years later, a different America had emerged. An America characterized by pervasive government bureaucracy, metropolitan values, assertive ethnic minorities, a nuclear power and an America whose political power was centred in Washington. More than any other president before him he directed the fundamental transformation of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s political society. His influence was so powerful that subsequent occupants of the White House had to operate in his shadow. When FDR assumed office, the economic situation was so devastating that the country was almost on its knees. The gross national product plummeted from $103.1 billion to $ 58 billion (in current dollars) between 1929 and 1932. In the same period the level of industrial production had almost halved. The unemployment rate was at 25%, thousands of farmers and businesses went bankrupt, and millions and millions of investors lost life savings. The New Deal brought into life by FDR could not have been more welcome. The Deal broke novel federal regulatory ground. For the fast time in the political and economic history of the United States, the federal government assumed the responsibility of stimulating investments. The federal government strove to correct the abuses in the national economic machinery. By amassing far more reaching goals, the government became responsible for the relief of distress among workers, homeowners, businesses, farmers, consumers and investors (Steiner 2005). Urgent action had to be taken. The election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1932 marked the terminus of the roaring twenties corporate regime paving the way for the New Deal regime, a regime that would reshape the balance of power in Washington and the way of life of American for almost half of the 20th century. The hope that he brought to the nation was so palpable. With the New Deal FDR Ã¢â¬Å"made his greatest single contribution to the politics of the 1930s: the instillation of hope and courage in the peopleÃ¢â¬ (Derber 2004, 60). Just a day after the inauguration, the president summoned an extraordinary session of Congress and with the first sitting fresh energies was directed towards the challenge of the time: the Great Depression. The term Ã¢â¬Å"Hundred DaysÃ¢â¬ became descriptive of the special sessions of the 73rd Congress that launched the New Deal to fight the Great Depression. Between March 9 1933 and June 16, 1933, more major legislations were passed by Congress than at any other time in the history of the United States. The major legislations passed during these one hundred days include; the Emergency Banking Act, the Civilian Conservation Act, the Economy Act, the Reforestation Relief Act, the Economy Act, the Federal Emergency Relief Act, the Securities Act, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Home OwnersÃ¢â¬â¢ Refinancing Act, the National Employment System Act, the Banking Act, the Emergency Railroad Transportation Act, the Farm Act and the National Industrial Recovery Act. The one hundred days as the most dramatic duration in the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ public policy history (Olson 2001). In the early months of 1933, the Great Depression continued biting along its relentless path. Unemployment mounted, industrial production foundered, mortgage foreclosures became commonplace and the banking sector failed and not even the state authorities could afford to meet their relief obligations (Cashman 1989). Coupled to this inaction, the country had to wait for four months before any positive executive action could come into play. From the presidential date of November 8 to the inauguration date on March 4, this quadrennial problem in American politics persisted and its ramifications with regard to the Great Depression were not friendly either. To remedy the situation, the Twentieth Amendment did away with the Congress meeting on January 3 and brought forward the presidential inauguration to January 20 from March 4. However, the ratification of this Amendment did not take place until February 1933. To try and heal the stultifying loss of confidence occasioned by the four months of unnecessary wait, Herbert Hoover attempted a smooth transition by pursuing dialogue with FDR, trying to extract assurances that FDR would comply with his positions on taxes and tariffs, the budget and the currency even if such a move was only focussed on maintaining public confidence but FDR would not promise commitment (Cashman 1989). In February 1933, a series of bank failures led to the complete collapse Herbert HooverÃ¢â¬â¢s intended dialogue. Historically, the weakness of the American banking system had led to so many bank failures, but in 1932-1933, the condition was reminiscent of an acute crisis. In October 1932, the crisis deepened further. In anticipation of the collapse of a crucial banking chain in Nevada, the governor ordered a bank holiday. On the midnight of February 14 1932, William A. Comstock, the Governor of Michigan issued a proclamation leading to the closure of five hundred and fifty banks for eight days. The Michigan bank holiday precipitated the panic that spread to other states and subsequent declarations of bank holidays (Cashman 1989). As banks closed for holidays, the gold reserves flowed from the Federal Reserve System and the New Yolk banks to keep banks across the country afloat and to satisfy the demands of the panic stricken foreign investors. In slightly more than two months, Americas gold reserves had fallen from more that $ 1.3 billion to just $ 400 million. By 1933, 18,569 banks had a total deposit of about $ 6 billion in cash against the demand of $ 41 billion by depositors. Two days before the inauguration of FDR, $ 500 was withdrawn from banks across the country making the situation worse (Cashman 1989). It is therefore no surprising that all Americans were united in the demand of a decisive executive action even if such an imperative could only be met by a modified dictatorship.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Importance of Solar Energy Essay Solar energy is the nature available source of energy; it is continuous providing by the Sun. It is the most important of non-conventional sources of energy therefore it is one of the non-polluting energy and helps in less the greenhouse effect. The method as solar panels absorb energy from sun to gain heat for water heating. Similarly as we use the energy of the sun to dry our clothes. Such systems are readily available in the market and are being used in worldwide factories and homes. Solar water heaters are cost competitive in many applications when it take into account the total energy costs over the life of system. Although the initial cost of solar water heaters is higher than that of conventional water heaters. However, the fuel (i.e. sun) is safe, free and environmental friendly. To take advantage of these heaters, it must have an unshaded, south-facing location (e.g. roof or south-facing windows for externally mounted solar panels on building facade). In this coursework, different types of solar water heaters will be introduced, including application on different types of systems available with their economic and environmental benefits. Solar energy is the most nature inexhaustible renewable energy. To the worlds energy resources perspective, we have relied heavily on traditional energy stocks are already very limited storage capacity of the remaining oil can be used only forty-three years; natural gas storage capacity of the remainder can only be used Liushiernian Coal is the 200 Ã £Ã¢â¬Å¾ thirteen years, these stocks will be growing as people increasingly exhausted to do extraction. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions from conventional energy sources is the phenomenon of global warming caused by Ã £Ã¢â¬Å¾ major reason. Chinas response to the global Framework Convention on Climate Changes international responsibilities, set de 2020 renewable energy will estimate the total generating capacity of 12% of the long-term goal, and actively promote the development and application of renewable energy, reducing the use of traditional fossil fuels and to play a accessibility of renewable energy, while promoting domesti c energy diversification and the main nature. In the vast universe, and human relying on a star is to shine a recent four-color sun. The sun, it was a huge light and heat, all things on earth to bring vitality, it wasted no time in sending to the space with a lot of energy. It has been calculated, only issued for every wonderful energy, by about the equivalent of 1.3 quadrillion tons of coal combustion is emitted by all the heat. The sun sends to Earths energy is considerable, but only to its 22 billionth of outward radiation of energy, just from these energies, if the surface of the Earths atmosphere to remove the reflection and absorption of energy, it will really reach the Earth the surface of solar energy, approximately equal to the worlds current generation capacity of 20 million times. Solar energy received on Earth every day, equivalent to the entire world for one year the total energy consumed by 200 times. Only from these figures we can see a huge, really worthy of the suns energy is an inexhaustible treasure house of mankind. On the other hand, the earths variety of energy sources, including chemical energy, wind energy, ocean energy, thermal energy and nuclear energy are all descendants of solar energy, solar energy conversion made. Because photovoltaic clean noise-free and changing, as many renewable energy sources and development of the most characteristic items of energy. In building the use of renewable energy technologies are being widely studied and applied them. Renewable energy is a natural? Health and inexhaustible source of energy, which include (but are not limited to) solar, wind, tidal energy, wave energy, geothermal energy, hydropower and bio-energies. Each type of renewable energy has its own unique features, only the full understanding of these characteristics, we can effectively in our buildings in respect of use of these energy sources. Solar and wind are the most common renewable energy sources. Compared with other renewable energy sources, they are more likely to be collected and used in the building. Currently we collected solar energy can be grouped into three kinds of purposes: power generation, heating / cooling, and chemical processes. The first two applications have been applied in Hong Kong, and they are also among the most popular in building the application method, application examples include: the use of passive solar design to warming the room; the use of solar water heating system can heat water; use of solar PV systems can generate electricity and the joint power companys electricity supply systems that supply the building. The wind can be? Buildings to provide natural ventilation, or to generate electricity. These application methods are not on the environment pollution.
Posted by Unknown at 8:53 AM
Thursday, September 19, 2019
It's Time to Stop the Commerce in Death Ã One of the symptoms of a society in the grips of moral crisis is a tendency to refer to reprehensible acts by soft-sounding euphemisms, by names that do not directly excite human qualms or agitate scruples and that evade precise reflection on the reality of certain situations. For example, in our modern lexicon, abortion is called "freedom of choice," sexual libertinage is dubbed "alternative lifestyles," and certain forms of genocide-in-slow-motion can be made to seem more acceptable under the name "family planning." Ã Such are the mental tricks and the "word magic" employed to quiet the normal functioning of our consciences. Sadly, they work on a great many people for long periods of time. Like certain narcotics, they dull the moral senses and can eventually blot out such feelings completely. Ã This being so, let us examine a concept that is very old, that disappeared from civilized life for almost two millennia, and that has now begun its return, lifting itself ever higher on the distant horizon, like a huge, menacing, black cloud. That concept is known as euthanasia. Ã "Good Death" Ã The English word euthanasia is derived from the Greek and means, literally, "good death." According to its oldest meaning, it signifies merely the relatively painless, gentle passage of someone from this life to the next, without necessarily any human inference or intervention.Ã Even in the Christian tradition, we sometimes hear the term "good death" used in the sense that the departed person died at peace with himself, with his family, and with God. Ã However, an alternative definition, more in accord with contemporary usages, generally suggests something quite different: It indicates the bringing about of the death of a human being, either by suicide or killing, ostensibly to prevent extreme physical pain or mental anguish. Euthanasia, according to the teaching of every traditional Christian group, is looked upon as suicide or murder, plain and simple, and, until recently, was universally condemned in all societies whose roots grew out of Christianity. This teaching holds that a supposedly worthy end, in this case the termination of pain and suffering, never, according to traditional moral norms, justifies immoral or unethical means. Ã With the rise of revolutionary ideologies in the late 18th century, Darwinistic philosophies in the following century, and the concomitant decline in fidelity to Christian teaching, especially among educated
Posted by Unknown at 10:14 AM
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Violence against Women Gender-based violence has been recognized as a large public health problem as well as a violation of human rights worldwide. One out of three women has been beaten, coerced into sex, or abused in another way at least once in her life (www.infoforhealth.org). The abuser is usually a member of the family, introducing the difficult problem in that the abuse usually happens behind closed doors, and is often viewed by cultural norms and legal systems as a family matter rather than a crime. The statistics available on violence against women are startling. Domestic violence is the major cause of death and disability for European women ages 16 to 44 and accounts for more deaths and injuries than automobile accidents and cancer. The Russian government estimates that over 14,000 women were killed by family members in 1999, but there is still no legislation that specifically addresses domestic violence. In South Africa, more women are shot in the home by relatives than are shot on the streets or by intruders (web.amnesty.org). Two of the most common forms of abuse in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood are intimate partner abuse and coerced sex. Intimate partner abuse is almost always accompanied by serious psychological abuse and in one quarter to one half of cases is also accompanied by forced sex. Most women that are abused numerous times often become terrified of their partners. Many are scared to speak to someone about the abuse due to the fear that the abuse will get worse if reported (www.infoforhealth.org). In some countries, women are discriminated against by laws that do not protect from violence in the home. Police and persecutors sometimes refuse to help women abused in the home because of the false assumption that these women bring on the abuse themselves. Women that attempt to testify against their husbands may lose custody of their children. For women of these nations, there is no way out and nobody to listen (web.amnesty.org). The effects of abuse may be detrimental to a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s reproductive health, as well as to other aspects of her physical health and psychological state. Along with increasing injury, physical abuse can cause an array of other problems such as increased risk of unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, adverse pregnancy complications, chronic pain, physical disability, depression, and drug and alcohol use. Health care providers often miss opportunities to detect if a woman has been abused by either being unaware, indifferent, or judgmental.
Posted by Unknown at 11:35 AM
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Friendship. What does it mean? I believe that friendship means that youÃ¢â¬â¢re there for a person no matter what and if they are in need then you would do anything to help them out. Hunters in the Snow doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly define friendship. If anything it defines betrayal. Throughout this short story some of the characters do actions to their Ã¢â¬Å"friend.Ã¢â¬ Betrayal and loyalty is kind of the theme throughout the story and it makes a person think about who their real friends are. In Hunters in the Snow, Kenny, Tub, and Frank are all supposed to be friends, but through a couple series of events make a person wonder what exactly friendship means to them. Each one of the characters has certain traits that can lead them to betray them. Towards the end of the story, the reader starts to feel sorry for Kenny after Tub and Frank leave him in the back of the pickup while they go eat pancakes, then Frank and Tub Ã¢â¬Å"accidentallyÃ¢â¬ make a wrong turn so they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get Kenny to hospital in time after being shot. Lack of loyalty also leads to betrayal in this short story. In the beginning, Tub and Kenny were pretty good friends, but towards the end, Kenny is almost the outcast when Tub and Frank just leave him in the back of the truck wounded while they stop and eat. Betrayal and loyalty is a key characteristic that is portrayed in Hunters in the Snow. After reading this short story it really makes on person think about the characteristics they look for in their friends. Throughout this short story it was pretty obvious that all three of the main characters lack characteristics of being a good friend, but they are all very good at backstabbing their Ã¢â¬Å"friendsÃ¢â¬ .
Posted by Unknown at 1:01 PM
Monday, September 16, 2019
Can Everyone Benefit from Higher Education? Higher education refers to the level of learning that takes place at universities, colleges or degree-awarding institutions, which a person can attend after he or she completes high school or secondary school education. Higher education provides students with further knowledge on specific areas and awards the students with academic degrees or certificates. In the past, higher education was not seen as a Ã¢â¬Å"mustÃ¢â¬ as nowadays because a competition in job market was not as high as at the present time.In formers times, higher education was popular in some societies, mainly western culture, and not so famous in other parts of the world, Thailand and Asian countries for example. Since the world is becoming more globalized, there are so many businesses appeared and all of them require capable employees who can make tasks run smoothly. Business owners hire people who have special knowledge that fit their businesses. Therefore, higher educ ation has become popular and necessary throughout the world.In additional, everyone can gain the benefit from further education. People can benefit from higher education in various ways; for instance, there are specific area of knowledge, practical skills, interpersonal skills, new colleagues and society. In terms of career, these qualities can lead to the better job, higher salaries, larger societies, and more development and advancement in skills, knowledge and performance, especially when compared with people who graduate from high school.In addition, higher education is a key that helps people avoiding unemployment during the time of economic recession when a number of jobs is limit. However, there are some people who do not attend higher education and the reasons are different, depend on personal circumstances. For example, they might not see an importance of going to university or college because they already have special skills that are required in the job market e. g. sport players, artists, singers, stars.Some people might have less opportunity to study than others e. g. money problems or physical disabilities. In some cases, social inequality and intelligence can also be barriers to higher education. For instance, people who are clever but their families are in poverty might not have the opportunity to study because higher education is frequently considered to be expensive. In order to resolve the tuition fee problem, government should support by give scholarships for students who have a good grade or the reasonable conditions.Nevertheless, there are also alternatives to higher education that could be the reason for not attending universities or colleges. Some organizations provide on-the-job trainings to their employee in order to increase work skills, which can be a major cause of ignoring higher education. Some people need some specific professional skills for their job, so they decide to attend vocational trainings or short-term career preparatio n programs instead.There are also some groups of people who believe in the value of self-study so they do not see the necessity of going to universities or colleges. They can learn by themselves through various ways such as reading books, discussing with people or experiencing real situations. In summary, everyone can benefit from higher education; at least they gain more knowledge and skills. The more people are educated, the more the world became more developed and advanced. Thus, higher education is waiting for everyone. Nobody is too old to learn.
Posted by Unknown at 3:19 PM
Sunday, September 15, 2019
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Tawfik Jelassi in his book Strategies for e Business defined as the use of electronic means to perform an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s business. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a development in the e Commerce deals with online sales,online payment, Online Marketing etc. Since the introduction of E business in 1995 itÃ¢â¬â¢s been a part in the growth of the company and changing the business structure. As a part of partial fulfilment of my module I have chosen Air India web site.Air India is one of the leading carriers in International airways in INDIA it uses website extensively for the booking of tickets and promotional strategies E business has became a tool for their growth in the past two years. This report is classified into Two parts in the first part Overview to the company and website is given and the Second part is all about Branding, Segmentation, ease of use and transactional facilities followed by conclusion and recommendations. COMPANY OVERVIEW:Air India is an India based world wide airlines company operating both passenger and cargo flights ranging from Boeing 747Ã¢â¬â¢s to Airbus A -310. From the day the first flight took of way back in October 15,1932 it is representing the perfect example of both class and quality . Air India is set to transform into world class airline carrier after itÃ¢â¬â¢s merger with Indian Airlines the leader in the domestic sector of airlines in India. In addition to the basic facilities providing to the passengers it also provide wide range of in-flight facilities such as Air Shows, Catering etc.Cargo Division of Air India transports wide range of goods and a shipment tracking service is also available online. Air India has got the Infrastructure along with the network which ensures safe transportation and delivery of cargo world wide. From the past three years there is a phenomenal growth on both US and European sector since 2002 network has been expanded to Newark, Los Angeles along with New York and Chicago in US / Numbe r of flights running to these destinations were increased from 10 to 24 flights includes daily services to Newark, New York, Chicago and a thrice a week flight to LosAngeles.Number of flights to United Kingdom were increased from 10 to 30 flights out of which 20 leave to London and Five To Birmingham. There is a significant increase in the frequency of flights to Far East and South Eastern Asia. In April 2005 Air IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s low cost subsidiary Airlines AIR INDIA EXPRESS came into existence operating flights to UAE, Qatar, Oman and Singapore. For the Financial Year ending March 2006 AIR INDIA has made a net profit of Rs 87,480 million with a 15% growth over the previous year. WEBSITE OVERVIEW: [pic]Web site is very informative with all the necessary attributes what an airline should have along with the special offers they have got with them. Through the internet ticket booking which is available on the website a passenger can book tickets of his choice up to five adults, four chi ldren and two infants and can pay the fare through debit card or credit card at a time. These bookings can be made from three hours to 360 days prior to the departure of the flight. There are three kinds of ticketing methods available they are electronic ticketing, ticket by mail and ticket pick up at Airport .We can check the Time table of the flights, status of the flight both arrivals and departure along with the special requirements if needed such as meal preferences, seat and wheel chair. A clear idea regarding the cargo services offered by the Air Lines is given very clearly such as destinations they cover, specific weight limitations to particular destinations and the types of services they offer along with the cargo tracking facility through which we can know the delivery status of the shipment. Air India is distributing e tickets through AMADEUS.Now Air India will offer the Amadeus Ã¢â¬â enabled e ticketing services across all of its International and Domestic services. This made the most content of the website available to the travel agencies this enables Air India to keep up the progress to improve both efficiency and Customer service. Branding: A brand as defined by Philip Kotler is a term, sign, symbol or combination of these which is used by the consumers to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of the competitors .Brand identifies a market or the seller it can also be named as trade mark, Logo etc. A brand is a promise by the seller to deliver constant benefitÃ¢â¬â¢s, features and services for the consumers. Brands vary with the amount of power and value they have got in the market. There are brands which have high degree of Brand Awareness, Brand Acceptability, Brand Preference and Brand Loyalty.High brand equity provides a number of advantages such as reduction of marketing costs because of brand awareness and brand loyalty, launch of extensionÃ¢â¬â¢s become easy because o f brand name and creditability, this also offers the company some defence against the price competition. A brand name needs to be carefully managed to maintain its brand equity in the market to maintain so the companies should require to improve brand awareness, perceived quality and functionality and the positive association ( Philip Kotler, Marketing Management Millennium edition pg no 406).Air India follows all the fundamentals of branding to maintain its brand equity. Air India came into the market in 1946 with a Muscat of Maharaja (Emperor) which is very popular among the costumers in India. The Muscat symbolizes graciousness and rich living. This attempt of using Muscat took Air IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s sales and promotional messages to millions of passengers across the world. Price with quality gives value and value is why people tend to choose one brand over the other. Brand Marketing, Joe Marconi(2000), page 34) this is what Air India follows and gaining loyalty among the costumers. All the offers and the promotional strategies they follow help in maintaining the brand equity. The varied facilities they provide in the flight including Dining, Music ranging from Indian to western and Japanese music and videos in India to Japan flights is one among the unique features it has got which is attracting the passengers who fly from and to Japan.The Frequent Flyer programme and Flying Return Programme are introduced increases the brand loyalty. Air India is increasing its services to maintain itÃ¢â¬â¢s brand equity and attracting the new costumers by starting flights to the new destinations and creating a new sector in the cabin crew for the passengers with special needs all these helps Air India to live in the minds of the customers as a strong brand.The quality of service and the commitment to increase the costumer satisfaction makes Air India a top brand in India in the aviation sector and with itÃ¢â¬â¢s merger with Indian Airlines it is going create the same imp act on the domestic passengers as it created on the international customers from the past 56 years when they came into the market as a brand. MARKET SEGMENTATION: According to Philip Kotler Ã¢â¬Ëmarket segmentation is and effort done to increase the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s precision marketingÃ¢â¬â¢. To segment consumer markets usually researchers look at the consumer characteristics such as Geographic, demographic, psychographic and behaviour. . Geographical Segmentation: It involves dividing the markets into different geographical units such as Nations,States,Regions,Counties, Cities and Neighbourhoods. 2. Demographical Segmentation: The market is divided into groups on the basis of variables such as Age, Size of the family, Family life cycle, gender, Income, Occupation, Education, Religion, Race, Generation, Nationality and Social Class. 3. Psychographic Segmentation: In Psychographic Segmentation buyers or customers are divided into different groups based on lifecycle or personality and values. . Behavioural Segmentation: Here Buyers or Consumers are divided on the basis of their Attitude towards the product or company, use of it, benefits, usage rate, loyalty status, Buyer Readiness stage . AIR INDIAÃ¢â¬â¢S market segmentation is a mix of all the consumer behaviour segmentationÃ¢â¬â¢s as mentioned above. Factors such as, Air fare which varies from destinations to destinations this supports that based on the destinations the costumers travel fare depends on to which destination they are flying is Demographic way of segmentation.The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s website clearly provides all the basic necessities what an Airlines company should have. A passenger can book tickets whose family comprises up to five adults, four children and two infants where majority of family member range across the globe fall into this category. Seating arrangement are broadly classified into three based on the facilities provided like any other airlines. The three classes are First Class , Executive Class & Economy Class. The Preferences of the customers to book the class usually depends on their income, occupation, and Social Class.On the website if we se the two options while we book the ticket they are Restrictive fare and Flexible fare supports the above statement to some extent. All the variables such as Family size, income, occupation and social class are taken into consideration they all come under Demographic segmentation hence we can justify that the market segmentation of Air India follows Demographic segmentation. People who have got a life style of spending lavishly and love to be in esteemed state usually go with 1st class this life style is a variable of Psychographic segmentation.Air India provides extreme benefits for the passengers along with the basic needs such as Dining which offers a varied choice of menus ranging from Indian, Continental, to western nouvelle cuisine and Japanese meals on the India Ã¢â¬â Japan route if any passenger has got s pecial requirement varied choice of meals as many as 23 special meals whose details are present on the website. Serving first class passengers in Royal Dolton Bone China Crockery nd alcoholic bewarages which are served as complimentary in all classes are some examples of the benefits they provide the customers. Added to this in flight entertainment is provided with all accesses to different radio channels and offering music ranging from Indian to Jazz, Pop etc along with different videos of bollywood and many other regional languages are offered. Frequent Flyer programme and Flying return programme are the most attractive offers for the air India costumers through this they earn mileage points to redeem their tickets faster.Flying return programme has a membership of over 2,00,000 in India , Gulf, UK, USA, all these offerÃ¢â¬â¢s and the benefits they provide increase the loyalty status and usage rate and all these are the variables of the behavioural segmentation. Hence from the a bove points it is clear and evident that the marketing segmentation of Air India is mix of all the consumer characteristic segments. EASE OF USE: Air lines are using internet as an effective information dissemination and revenue generating channel (Connoly,Olsen Moore 1998).Standing(2000) claimed that the web has changed from pushing firms and services to pulling clients into value added opportunities that a company provide. According to Stuat (1996) an online catalogue should provide all the information what exactly customers need to make a purchase decision. All the promotions should include product information , product pricing and online ordering information. Connoly , Olsen, Moore (1998) argued that customers should know about Air Ticket prices , Schedules , and flight availability .Kucway (1997) stated that a appropriate airline website for starter should offer schedules , frequent flyer membership, tickets information and updated contact numbers for making reservations and a step beyond that is ability to make e- reservations. Airlines compete not only among each other but also with the other online travel agents such as Travelocity supported by SABRE and Expedia supported by Microsoft. The most common complaints about an about any web page is the lengthy time needed to load the web pages and loads of graphical images though these kind of graphical images attract the viewer.For every 10 sec taken by the graphics to be loaded before the webpage content can be seen there is a risk of loosing 20% of viewers (Taylor 1999). So web designers should try to avoid putting heavy graphical images on the home page and should provide linkÃ¢â¬â¢s to the related sites or pages where the information is quoted. A successful business website notices customers to visit and purchase as it offers something of value more than that the customers cannot find any where else (Theobald and Dunsmore 2000) Some of the basic characteristics that make a successful airline website a re (Stout 1996) 1.Availability of product pricing and product information. 2. Online ordering information for general products and services. 3. Provision for extra benefits for customers such as discounts on fares etc. 4. Fast loading web pages especially where home page is located. 5. Graphics should be kept in a small display size and scrolling text should be avoided. 6. And to cultivate customer loyalty. Air India website has got all the features what a successful air lines website should have except problem with home page loading.It is very easy to accesses the website the website is developed in such a way that a viewer or the customer can be able to know all the information he needs . It provides the customers with the fleet i. e. with all the aircrafts they have got with them and which kind aircraft they are using for which destinations this is one of the unique feature of this website. All the general information such as booking the tickets , destinations where they fly , of fers they have got with them , special requests baggage tracking facility online etc. One of the unique features of this website is online cargo tracking facility.At the bottom of the homepage there links provided through which one can access the FAQÃ¢â¬â¢s, Investor relations. About the Airlines etc. The website has been segmented into different pages and it is very easy to access the information it follows all the basic concepts and keep itÃ¢â¬â¢s brand name alive. Dave Chaffy in stated some principles which should be followed to design an effective webpage. If the web site is designed on these principles it will be user friendly and Air India website is one of the example of such websites with some exceptions.If the website is friendly then only the company can retain itÃ¢â¬â¢s costumers Air India is one of such website. TRANSACTIONAL FACILITIES: Transactional facilities are one of the important characters of an airline website. As these airline websites are meant for reser vations and payment of money usually so transactions are done at a higher rate on these websites. Company should be trusty and should give a durable service and the transactions should be secure Air India has got a data protection service which is present on the website.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a kind of procedure followed while a passengers books a ticket as a measure of extending the security system one should be able to provide all the details of his including Passport number etc by using or becoming a YATRIK ID holder after this the costumer is directed to purchase of ticket where there is a credit card or debit card verification system. The transaction process is very easy after the costumer pays the fare then immediately there will be mail including everything in the costumerÃ¢â¬â¢s mail box .Air India has got a well implemented technology and security features to safe guard the all the personal and transactional details. CONCLUSION: From the above all points we can conclude that Air Ind ia is one of the best example for an success full Air Line company operating the website. Website is filed with all the important information what a customer or passenger needs before booking tickets. All the offers and the destinations to which they fly and the shipment tracking facility on line is one of the important and unique feature of the website.RECOMMENDATIONS: By having a overall look at there are no significant problems with the website except the time taken by the home page to load which is the same case with many pages on the website. For every 10 seconds it takes for the graphics to be loaded before the complete Web page contents can be seen, there is a risk of losing 20% of the viewers (Taylor 1999) so keeping this view point the web page designers should be able to provide a efficient service overcoming this problem. The designers can break up the huge web page into multiple pages (Howe 1999).REFRENCES: ? www. airindia. in. ? http://www. m-travel. com/news/2007/05/ai r_india_to_di. html. ? Marketing Management by Philip Kotler Millennium edition. ? A study of Airlines Ã¢â¬ËOnline Reservations on the Internet Rob Law and Rita Leung. Journal of Travel research 2000;39;202. ? www. datamonitor. com Airlines in India Industry Profile November 2007 edition ,Reference code 0102-0756 ? E commerce Fundamentals and applications Henry chan, Ray Mondlee, Tharam Dillon, Elizabeth Chang 2001.
Posted by Unknown at 5:38 PM
Saturday, September 14, 2019
Main views about society Plato wrote in his book called the Republic. The Republic was written around 380 (BC). In this book Plato tries to define justice, right order and character of the just city and the just man. In the Republic different philosophers like Socrates try to argue, what is the meaning of justice. They also discuss if a just man is happier than an unjust man, if they are ruled by just philosopher kings. (Brickhouse, Thomas & Smith, Nicholas, 2010) Plato view, that a just city has to be ruled by these philosopher kings. Plato believed in an aristocratic system of ruling, not the democratic way of ruling. The kings have to be educated by philosophers, so that they would be like philosophers. Or philosophers should be elected as rulers. Anyhow he did not like some much about democracy and little educated leaders. (Brickhouse, Thomas & Smith, Nicholas, 2010) Plato thinks that there are many dangers in the democracy. People do not always choose the wisest persons at the elections. Sometimes they choose those, who can speak nicely. The knowledge is not the main criteria for choosing people at the democracy, but Plato thinks that those who know should be elected as rulers. (Saarinen 1985, p.43) Plato was pessimistic about people. According to him common people were bad and acted normally irrationally. People lived according to their selfish desires and bad beliefs. People did not follow the laws by their hearts, but because they were afraid of punishment. (Plato 360 BC, p.45) According to Plato people could not live alone. They needed each other. Plato said, that it is good for people to live in communities, by this way people can exchange products. (Plato 360 BC, p.75) Plato believes that the society has to be well ordered, this will lead into good moral in the society. Fine social order and education will educate good people. These good people, who are well educated, will be better than their parents (People living before them.). (Plato 360 BC, p.117, 353, 380) Plato thinks that a human soul and society have similarities. They both have same particles. Parts of the soul are like social classes in the society. If these parts / social classes are in harmony, there will be justice. There are three different classes in the society: Productive, protective and governing class. Productive class is workers: farmers, blacksmiths, carpenters, ranchers, etc. Part of the soul for these people is appetite. Second class is protective class. These people are warriors and guardians. They are strong and courageous. Part of the soul for these people is the spirit. Third class is the governing. These people are rulers or philosopher kings. They are rational, wise, self-controlled. These people can make good decisions for the society. These people are like the reason part of the soul. These people are very few. (Saarinen 1985, p.42-43) Plato already saw corruption in the society. He said that it is needed rule of law to prevent corruption. The government and guardians have to really guard the society that the order and rule of law can exist. (Plato 360 BC, p.141) Love of wisdom should be one of main values of the society. (Plato 360 BC, p.397) There should be order, not anarchy, in the society. If there is order children can orderly live with their parents and they can learn from their parents. In the same way masters can learn from their scholars. There should be some fear between son and a father and pupil and a teacher. This fear keeps the order. (Plato 360 BC, p.328-329) PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspectives on Organization Plato thought that there are three classes in the society, which should have a good co-operation and they should live in a harmony. According to PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s views organization has three different groups (classes). Somebody might also think that these groups (classes) have strict borderlines. This means that it is difficult to step from one group to another group. It is difficult to go over lines to another class at the organization. Plato sees an organization as an entity, which should be in harmony with its parts. Many modern organizational theoreticians have followed Plato, when they stress the unitary and well balanced nature of modern complex organizations. (Takala 1998, p.797) Plato thinks about the greatest evil and the greatest good at an organization. In His views evil is discord and distraction. On the other hand good is unity. There has to be unity in the organization, all the members should have common experiences (pleasures etc.). (Plato 360 BC, p.198) Justice is important thing for every organization. In the organization order brings justice and the organization has to keep the justice. (Plato 360 BC, p.6) If there is injustice in the organization, it will lead into quarrels and fights, people will become each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s enemies. Injustice will disturb the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s basis for human co-operation. (Plato 360 BC, p.53-54) Obedience is an important factor at the organization. Workers should obey their masters. Everybody should live under clear hierarchy and follow the orders given by those, who are over them. (Plato 360 BC, p.36, 192, 297) PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspectives on Leadership Plato thinks, that ruler has to be philosopher. This means, that only philosophers can be good rulers. In this way main character of a leader is his/her philosophical capacity. Leader (ruler) has to know the real being and leader (ruler) has to distinguish belief from the real knowledge. This is the highest virtue for a leader: To separate beliefs and real facts. (Saarinen 1985, p. 44) Plato thinks, that leader should love the truth. He teaches that a leader is like a captain and his ship or a doctor and his medicine. These professions (doctor, captain) cannot be practised by everyone by nature. So to be a leader is not by nature, leaders should be educated. Plato thinks that one of the main tasks for the education system is to produce these philosopher kings. (Plato 360 BC, p.233) Plato thinks that a leader has to be a just person. The stronger (leader) cannot abuse his power over the weaker. The leader has to be just and there has to be justice in the society. Leader guides this social order, so that society can live in harmony. Leader guides citizens (class of citizens) to carry out tasks for which they are suited and not interfering with the work of others. (Takala 1998, p.791) Plato sees leadership as an important part of a functioning society. He thinks that leadership is an educational catalyst in the society. Plato thinks that leader has got two important tasks: to control the implementation of education and to control the propagation of thoughts. Plato sees this controlling as an essential function in the society, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why the controllers must be philosophers. (Takala 1998, p.790-791) According to Plato education is needed to produce good philosopher leaders. Education leaves its mark on leaders. On the other hand education makes division between leaders and other people. Platonic education gives wisdom and mystical skills (real knowledge) to the leaders. (Takala 1998, p.792) Plato sees leadership as a duty of a philosopher. The essential thing is the true knowledge, if somebody has got the knowledge he can be the leader. The philosopher has got knowledge and he can rule. And the man, who is not philosophical, has got only a true beliefs or opinions. This corresponds that he cannot be the leader. (Takala 1998, p.792) In PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking there is the concept of the leadership of meaning. The leader has to create meaning, he has to sustain it and sometimes it has to be changed. In this way leadership can be seen as a social process. This social process includes all those means by which leadership creates new meanings by rituals, symbolizing and Ã¢â¬Å"namingÃ¢â¬ . The attributes of a powerful leader is also in the PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking. One attribute in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking is the charisma, which is said to be widely discussed in modern leadership theories. A leader must have charisma in order to be successful in his actions. Without it the leader is not able to do his job, to lead some complex organization. (Takala 1998, p.797) References http://www.springerlink.com/content/u348q477q0583068/fulltext.pdf
Posted by Unknown at 7:57 PM
Friday, September 13, 2019
Biographies of Oneil and Adele Cannon Essay Oneil and Adele Cannon will be honored this year as they celebrate fifty years of an activist marriage. The following is just a short summary of the many ways Oneil and Adele Cannon have contributed to the history of Los Angeles. The great French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78) wrote in his work Emile: Ã¢â¬Å"there is no happiness without courage nor virtue without struggleÃ¢â¬ . This is a quote that certainly can apply to the lives of Oneil Cannon and his wife Adele. As they celebrate fifty years of an activist marriage, their life journey has exemplified the qualities of courage and struggle. The causes that they have fought together are a chronicle of the progressive movement over the last half century. Oneil Cannon was born in Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana on January 28, 1917. He attended grammar and high school in New Orleans, Louisiana. In his 20Ã¢â¬â¢s he was drafted into the Army in Louisiana. He first visited L. A. during his furlough from the Army, to visit his sister and younger brother. He met and married his first wife, Elizabeth, in New Orleans in 1939. After his discharge from the Army in 1945 he felt that Los Angeles would probably offer better opportunities for a man and his young family, so they moved to Watts. This was during the era of a large migration of African-Americans from the south to California and other northern states. In order to sustain an income in those beginning years, he had various jobs. In 1946 he obtained a position as an Insurance Agent with the historical Golden State Insurance Company (the first insurance company to predominantly serve the African American community in Los Angeles). As Oneil puts it: Ã¢â¬Å"My brother Fred and I had opened our own printing shop in Watts before either of us knew very much about printing. We were both just out of the Army (World War II) and after a time, we decided that I would go to school and learn printing. I studied printing at Frank Wiggins Trade School which later became Trade Tech Junior College in the years 1947 to 1950. Fred would stay and take care of the shop and then I would come home and teach my brother what I learned at school about printing. That was my job. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s the way we did it. So we both became printers at the same time, but I became a printing teacher, the same day that I became a printing student. We ran the shop and studied between meetings and other community activities, which we were both involved in Mrs. Carlotta Bass, editor and publisher of the California Eagle Newspaper, (who also introduced Oneil to Paul Robeson) also had a printing shop needing someone to take it over at that time. So Oneil went in and made a deal with herÃ¢â¬âshe rented him the use of the printing shop. Therefore Oneil was in business for himself as the California Eagle Printing Company (1950-55). Also, he still worked with his brother at the Quick Service Advertisers Print Shop on 111th and Wilmington. They printed signs, leaflets and advertisements for various funeral establishments, political causes and groups, and businesses in the community. One day Carlotta Bass came into the printishop with some people to talk to Oneil about the Printers Union. Because of his hands-on work and training as a printer, they invited him to join in starting a campaign to break the color line in the Printers Union. This was a significant point in continuing the struggle for equal opportunities for all, and shows his genuine concern and courage to bring justice to the community. Philip Ã¢â¬Å"SlimÃ¢â¬ Connelly from the CIO, asked if he could participate in this very important campaign. Prior to this time, the Union did not have any African American members. Considering OneilÃ¢â¬â¢s history of activism, from the voting rights movement in the south in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s, to being involved in breaking the color bar in the International Typographical Union (ITU), this was one of the most important, telling and dramatic labors of his life. Oneil stated, Ã¢â¬Å"This is how I got started to working on getting into a printing union. After getting all sorts of Ã¢â¬Å"run aroundsÃ¢â¬ from printing unions, somehow some of the Communists who were in the ITU came to me and offered to help, if I was really interested in breaking the Jim Crow status in the printing industry and unions in Los Angeles. I had absolutely no doubts that I was ready for this struggle; Ã¢â¬Å"a piece of cakeÃ¢â¬ , after all, hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t I just come from Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ Louisiana where IÃ¢â¬â¢d lived all my life, and hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t I just gotten out, after three years in a Ã¢â¬Å"Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ Army. I had been all over Los Angeles looking for, and working on different jobs. But you Ã¢â¬Å"ainÃ¢â¬â¢tÃ¢â¬ lived until you have to deal with well-organized trade union bigots. These dudes were really pros. Interestingly, I never once heard them attacking my desire for membership on the basis of race, but only because the people who advocated my membership were Communists. Incidentally, I never saw any membership cards, but saw that they knew of my efforts to become a printers union member, and that they were the ones who came to my assistance. Logic tells me that there was something strange about the UnionÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, because if they hated Communists so badly, why were these white Communists Ã¢â¬Å"in the unionÃ¢â¬ , and not one African American? This point was raised by one of the comrades on the union floor and he was roundly booed, but not put out of the union. Ã¢â¬ Oneil finally became a member of the Printers Union, but then was never sent out to jobs. When he went to the Union Hall, somehow there was no work for him. However, some of his friends benefited by Oneil breaking that barrier, and did get jobs. So the struggle continued. Meanwhile, Oneil continued operating his own Ã¢â¬Å"UnionÃ¢â¬ printing business Fidelity Lettershop, which he continues to run today. Ã¢â¬Å"I ended up not only running my own printing shop, but also teaching graphic arts at S. T. E. P. ne of the Ã¢â¬Å"Poverty ProgramsÃ¢â¬ and eventually I retired as a California State credentialed graphic arts teacher in 1999. This is where he first met (now Congresswoman) Maxine Waters. I still teach on a volunteer basis at the Paul Robeson Center in south Los Angeles, of which I am the director. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve been teaching printing a long time. Ã¢â¬ Oneil and Adele met in 1947, while working together as part of a political team in South Los Angeles during the campaign to put Henry Wallace (who was running against Truman) and the Independent Progressive Party (IPP) on the Ballot. Adele was also an activist, beginning with the Franklin Roosevelt campaign as a precinct worker. Adele Marx Rosenfield was born in El Paso, Texas in 1923. Her family moved to California in about 1936 and she graduated from Fairfax High School in 1940. She then attended UCLA to study Chemistry. After Pearl Harbor, she enlisted in the WAVES, but was discharged after only 17 days due to Ã¢â¬Å"political activities in civilian lifeÃ¢â¬ . It turned out the government had interviewed a friend of the family who told of her activities. She married and had two childrenÃ¢â¬âJan and Dale Goodman. Adele and Oneil were married in December, 1954. When her youngest child, Jan Goodman, was in Junior High School she went back to school at UCLA Extension and then for her Masters of Business Administration at Cal State Dominguez, while working as an office manager, and raising a family. After earning her CPA and working as a full-time accountant, she served as the Peace and Freedom PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s State Treasurer for 16 years and is still a State Officer of the Peace and Freedom Party. Since starting to work together as part of a political team in South Los Angeles during the campaign to put Henry Wallace and the Independent Progressive Party (IPP) on the ballot in the late 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s, they continued as a team when fighting to free the Rosenbergs and later Angela Davis. One fight always led to another, as they fought as part of the IPP to force employers to hire African and Mexican- Americans, where the slogon was Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t bank or buy where you canÃ¢â¬â¢t workÃ¢â¬ . As part of the South-East Inter-Racial Council, they fought to end segregated housing and restrictive covenants and to bring Negro History Week into the Los Angeles City Schools. Always striving to bring peace, they gathered signatures to the Stockholm Peace Petition, fought and demonstrated against the wars in Vietnam and continue to fight for Middle East peace. As they raised their six kids, the Cannons fought to bring equal education to South Los Angeles, including the multi-years struggle led by Odessa Cox to bring a Junior college to South Los Angeles, which culminated in the establishment of Southwest Community College. They were also involved from the beginning to acquire a health facility of some kind in Watts, which ultimately came under the leadership of Ted and Bernice Watkins and the Watts Labor Community Action Committee (WLCAC), a predecessor of the Martin Luther King, Jr. Hospital. Oneil Cannon is known to current activists as owner/operator/union printer at his print shop, Fidelity Educational Press. Oneil, along with his wife Adele and others co-founded the Paul Robeson Community Center in 1986. When they were thinking about a name for this Center, their daughter Jan Goodman suggested it be named in honor of Paul Robeson since their goal was to establish a multi-cultural/multi-ethnic community center. Therefore, who better to exemplify multi-culturalism than Paul Robeson. In the CannonsÃ¢â¬â¢ fifty years as a team, they have certainly lived their motto to improve our community. Instead of leaving when the kids were grown, they stayed to continue the fight for better schools and living conditions in South Los Angeles. In this way they have been able to truly contribute to a multi-cultural South Los Angeles. Biographies of Oneil and Adele Cannon. (2017, Jan 14).
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Did DB Cooper Get Away With It - Research Paper Example This research will begin with the statement that on the day before Thanksgiving 1971, one of the most famous airplane hijackings in US history took place in the skies over the Pacific Northwest. In the over forty years since, the Ã¢â¬Å"DB CooperÃ¢â¬ case has continued to rivet the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s, if not the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s, attention. Since no corpse was ever found, the question remains. Wednesday, November 24, 1971, a man calling himself Dan Cooper bought an airline ticket from Portland, Oregon, to Seattle, Washington and soon boarded Northwest Orient Flight 305. The man was generally described by witnesses as a normal looking fellow, possibly early forties, and wearing a black raincoat over a dark business suit. The aircraft was a Boeing 727 and the flight was a normally uneventful half-hour trip. According to retired FBI agent Ralph Himmelsbach, the lead investigator on the case, in his book Norjak: The Investigation of D.B. Cooper, shortly after takeoff, just before 3:00 PM, Cooper passed a note to the flight attendant, stating he had a bomb and the plane was being hijacked. Although frightened, she asked to see his bomb and he showed her his briefcase which was full of some odd red cylinders with a cylindrical battery that she assumed might have been sticks of dynamite. The stewardess then told their conversation and showed the note to the cabin crew, who dutifully relayed the information to Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) officials in Seattle.
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Thursday, September 12, 2019
Origami - Math Problem Example For a dodecahedron, at least 3 different colors are required, as a dodecahedron cannot be properly colored in less than 3 colours. It is advisable to draw the planar graph of a a dodecahedron when planning the 3-edge coloring. "It is always quite puzzling to try to make use only 3 colors of paper with no two units of the same color touching. Each unit corresponds to an edge of the planar graph, so this is equivalent to a proper 3-edge-coloring of the polyhedron." (T.Hull, 2006) During the nineteenth century, Sir William Rowan Hamilton who was a mathematician from Ireland, invented a puzzle known as 'Around the World.' The concept behind the puzzle was to label the vertices of a regular dodecahedron according to the names of various cities of the world. Hamilton's puzzle can be solved by beginning from any given city (i.e. any vertex) and traveling around the world from one city (vertex) to another. This entails that one moves along the edges of the dodecahedron in such a manner that each other city is touched only once before going back to the original vertex or starting point. This solution to Hamilton's puzzle is known as a Hamilton cycle/Hamilton circuit. Thus, a Hamilton circuit can be said to be a path in the dodecahedron which starts at a vertex, touches every other vertex, in the dodecahedron, and then returns to the original starting point without touching any single vertex two times. A Hamilton circuit in the planar graph of a dodecahedron References J.A.Gallian (2006) Contemporary Abstract Algebra. Houghton R.A.Brualdi (2004) Introductory Combinatorics. Prentice Hall T.Hull (2006) Project Origami-Activities for Exploring Mathematics. A K Peters
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Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Business Intelligence - Essay Example to make maximum utilization of the information in hand to produce at the utmost capacity. Furthermore, with continuous advancements in the business environment, managers are facing increased stress to develop their credibility (Khan & Quadri, 2012). With this regard, the essay intends to develop the specifications that are associated with the needs of developing business intelligence. In correspondence to the above stated facts, the essay also focuses on developing an in depth understanding towards the challenges that may crop up in the course of implementation and helps in maintaining dashboards. The essay intends to develop a better understanding towards maintaining dashboards and includes the management of diverse challenges that could surface during the management of different needs. Managing business intelligence has been of complex and dynamic nature that imposes a challenge for enhancing the scenarios that are prevalent within the social domain. In this respect, the overall management of the business has been imposing enormous level of complexity that could initiate diverse needs of the system and enhance effectiveness of the managers to meet with the needs of the business. Dashboards help in developing a better insight towards the issues and enhance the ability to meet with the complexes that are associated with the business operations. Dashboards enable a business to monitor the needs of managing business intelligence and increase the effectiveness through successful development of the business operations (Bara & et. al., 2009). With the increasing amount of complexities, there has been a huge shift within the management of the diverse business strategies. This could be identifiable that management of information system has been a complicated job for the pe ople who are managing the diverse approaches within the system for enhancing the effectiveness of the business (Khan & Quadri, 2012). The
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Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Consider the ways in which actual readers may deviate from the role assigned them as implied readers and why this happens. Make very specific and detailed reference to the texts and make use of quotations - Essay Example Written by Chinua Achebe, it is regarded as the seminal novel within African literature. Achebe has said that he wrote his famous book, at least in part, because of the anger he felt at being made to read Conrad's Heart of Darkness and Cary's Mister Johnson in colonial schools. The latter features a slavish African who adores his white boss so much that he is gladly shot to death by him. In the former, white men go insane because of the 'heart" of the "darkness" revealed by Africa and Africans. In Things Fall Apart Achebe intends to speak to an implied reader who has read books similar to the ones he was made to read in high school. Achebe assumes a knowledge of Africa based upon books such as these, and then turns that "knowledge" on its head by giving the African viewpoint. Colonization had a profound effect upon many parts of the now developing world. Formulated as part economic expansion and part assertion of supposedly superior values and culture by mainly European countries, the effects of colonization were similarly varied. Colonial areas essentially became vassals of their colonial masters. Their economic riches were taken for the good of the colonists and old customs often subsumed within the changes brought about by European education of the elite and the attempts of missionaries to convert the local people to Christianity. Achebe is attempting to put the reader in the shoes of the Africans being influenced by these policies rather than, as is more normal within literature, in the position of the Europeans. In 1914, Lord Frederick Lugard, the governor of the British territories in Nigeria united areas in the North and South of the country into a single colony, thus creating "Nigeria" at a stroke. This was a common occurrence: countries were essentially just drawn on a map with little attention paid to natural geographical, cultural or tribal boundaries. It also played into the idea that all Africans were somehow the 'same': that is, primitive, innately stupid and dangerous unless treated with a carefully harsh hand. There were no differences in culture to the colonial's eyes, or if there were, they were insignificant as the Africans were just "natives" first and members of individual and contrasting groups second. In Things Falling Apart the author takes this tendency to see all Africans as a homogenous whole and turns it on its head. He suggests that Africans are almost as responsible for their lowly state as the colonial powers because they essentially buy into the idea of their supposedly primitive nature. If Africans are not interested in their history and culture, then how can they expect colonial powers to be In the book an attempt is made to show native African culture as complex and sophisticated with various traditions that date back centuries. But this culture was essentially dwarfed and overwhelmed by unimpeded contact with Western culture. Take the example of the Oba leaders called Afins. Under colonialism their wealth tended to disintegrate because their economic system had changed so rapidly. They could no longer benefit from free labor and the chief was no longer allowed to impound properties. The Oba could not support large numbers of wives, children and servants. The Afins were often forced to shut down their large houses and to turn to ordinary work. Achebe argues that all too many Africans are willing to accept the European
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Monday, September 9, 2019
Supply Chain - Essay Example that determines the efficiency of the overall business to a great extent and its effectiveness reflects and ensures the effectiveness of other front end business processes. For example, when an efficient supply chain enables the timely and cost effective procurement of the services, the possibility of providing goods or services to the customers increases many folds. The travel agency business is no exception in this regards. This paper intends to explore the supply chain under Ã¢â¬Ëbrick and mortar system Ã¢â¬â¢and compare the changes that has been brought due to the interventions of technology on the supply chain. Before moving further few terms need to be explained. Brick and Mortar means manual way of working. Click and mortar means combination of manual and automated working; whereas, click only means totally automated working. The business of travel agency in older times, when the brick and mortar system was in operations, was mainly manual and the service they used to provide was to arrange for the flights, booking of the hotels and to arrange any other service required by the customers during the travelling. Let us explore the supply chain for the travel agency under brick and mortar system. Under manual system, the participants of the supply chain were, the travel agent, the hotel administration, the airline ticking staff and other salesman for relevant services, for example, if the customer is being provided with the car rentals, then the car rental vendor will also be the participant of the supply chain. The process of supply chain was very simple yet bearing a lot of demerits. The process was like, the travel agent used to have the agreements with different vendors and on receiving orders, they used to go to those vendors, book their service and get the tickets/ receipts etc. Though it was very simple supply chain, yet it bore many discrepancies, for example, suppose that a travel agent books the ticket for a particular destination for his journey but
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Importance of Crisis Management Plan in Organizations - Research Paper Example Some common examples are threat of bankruptcy, computer system failure, a big industrial accident, defect of a manufactured product and its recall, sudden fall in the sales and so on. In fact, the senior management of an organization is the most affected when there is a crisis. It is for the management to ensure that suitable people are arranged in a proper fashion to deal with major problems that could affect the organization. In addition, it is necessary to ensure that even the crisis management plan reflects the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s core values. Also, there should be properly defined methods to communicate with various stakeholders including clients and shareholders during a crisis. Admittedly, organizations can considerably improve their readiness to face crises by testing the methodologies they have developed. First of all, a suitable crisis management plan can make an organization strong enough to withstand potential threats and secondly, awareness about possible threats makes the organization able to take early action, thus resulting in reduced damages. Also, the development of a suitable crisis management plan will give the organization an upper hand over other poorly-prepared competitors. Moreover, effective communication at the time of crisis will make the public realize how the core values and beliefs helped the organization overcome the challenges, thus giving it a better public image. Some other benefits are that the plan restores critical business processes and systems in less time, reduces the length of the interruption process, minimizes reputation damage, maintains customer relations, protects assets, saves lives and reduces the chances for further injuries. The Action Checklist of Crisis Management The first step in crisis management involves developing an overall crisis management plan that does not significantly vary from the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s core values and beliefs. Thereafter, it is necessary to develop a crisis management team structure and define the roles and responsibilities of each personnel. In addition, it is necessary to define the lines of authority as absence of this may result in communication anarchies. Also, it is vital to ensure that during a crisis, appropriate action is taken to communicate with stakeholders. Lastly, it is vital to connect the crisis management with business recovery program. The purpose of crisis management Effective management of a crisis involves prevention, planning, testing, evaluation and maintenance. However, when a crisis management plan is developed, it is necessary to ensure that the plan restores critical business processes and systems, reduces the length of the interruption process, minimizes reputation damage, maintains customer relations, protects assets, saves lives and reduces the chances for further injuries. The planning process Successful crisis management involves planning, testing, evaluation and maintenance. In fact, successful risk management is a mix of sound organizational practices and the use of basic safety-related technology. So, the first stage is enhancing security to avoid the possibility of unintentional events. In order to identify the possible crises, it is necessary for organizations to develop a vulnerability assessment process. This will help the organization identify the probable threats and the need to make necessary changes. When assessment is conducted, it is necessary to include warning signs because before certain crisis, there is the possibility of certain warning signs. For example, erratic employee behavior can be the indication of a
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Saturday, September 7, 2019
Illegal P2P File Sharing on Institutions of Higher Learning - Research Paper Example Facilitating parties such as P2P providers have been held secondarily liable for the infringing activities too. Institutions of higher learning such as colleges and universities have been targeted by the efforts of the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) to eradicate illegal file sharing rampant among students (Tanaka 22). Even though Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) limits the level of liability of Internet service providers (ISPs) who may provide internet connection to infringing user of P2P file sharing, RIAA argues that there is a special relationship between college networks (ISPs) and their students different from that commercial ISPs have with their customers. This is aimed at increasing the liability which colleges carry from infringing activities of students (Varian 48). There is a possibility of high financial and academic cost of restriction of P2P file sharing in campuses. The following paper explorers the solutions to illegal P2P file sharing activiti es in colleges. 2. Response to Illegal P2P File Sharing by the Music Industry Mora than 50% of college students download music illegally. In the year 2010, 1.6 billion illegal music downloads were associated with students of higher learning. Such statistics are the reason why RIAA decided to concentrate on deterring illegal P2P file sharing in college. ... of the music industry, has also introduced an education bill which ensures that colleges follow certain guidelines aimed at eradicating illegal music downloads. If these institutions fail to comply with such procedures, they risk losing all or part of federal fund assistance. According to Gopal, Sudip and Lawrence (81), Ã¢â¬Å"the procedures in the education bill include; (1) make college policies regarding illegal downloading and distribution of other copyrighted material publicly available for all students and employees, and (2) develop a plan to offer alternatives to illegal downloading as well as offer Ã¢â¬Å"technology-based deterrentsÃ¢â¬ to prevent illegal activity.Ã¢â¬ 3. Relationship between College and Students The relationship between colleges and their students can be said to be special. This is because colleges have a high tendency and ability to control actions of their students. This is possible through provision of resources such as security, food and sometimes housing (Gallaway & Douglas 37). Even though majority of student are adults in their own capacity, they remain under rules and regulations designed by colleges to control the conduct of students. With this fact, college-student relations are special and can therefore warrant a duty on the college to monitor their internet networks and make efforts toward reduction or minimization of infringing activities such as illegal music downloading (Castells 77). From the argument that colleges have a great impact on the structure of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life by providing them with food, housing, security and controlling their activities through rules and regulations, colleges can be said to have a special relationship with their students. This relationship is justified by comparing it to that of a parent and a child.