Thursday, May 21, 2020

What Is Black Power

The term â€Å"Black Power† refers to both a political slogan popularized between the 1960s and the 1980s, as well as the various ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for black people. It was popularized within the United States, but the slogan, along with components of the Black Power Movement, has traveled abroad. Origins After the shooting of James Meredith in the March Against Fear, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (influential within the Civil Rights Movement) held a speech on June 16, 1966. In it, Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael) declared: This is the 27th time I have been arrested and I aint going to jail no more! The only way we gonna stop them white men from whuppin us is to take over. What we gonna start sayin now is Black Power! This was the first time Black Power had been used as a political slogan. Although the phrase is thought to have originated in Richard Wright’s 1954 book, â€Å"Black Power,† it was in Ture’s speech that â€Å"Black Power† emerged as a battle cry, an alternative to more tempered slogans like â€Å"Freedom Now!† employed by nonviolent groups like Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Southern Christian Leadership Conference. By 1966, many black people believed that the Civil Rights Movement’s focus on desegregation failed to examine how America had weakened and humiliated black people for generations  Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã‚  economically, socially, and culturally. Young black people, in particular, had become tired of the Civil Rights Movement’s slow pace. â€Å"Black Power† became symbolic of the new wave of the black freedom struggle that broke from earlier tactics focused on the church and King’s â€Å"beloved community.† Black Power Movement Malcolm X Bring about the freedom of these people by any means necessary. Thats our motto. We want freedom by any means necessary. We want justice by any means necessary. We want equality by any means necessary. The Black Power Movement began in the 1960s and continued throughout the 1980s. While the movement had multiple tactics, from non-violence to proactive defense, its purpose was to bring the ideological developments of Black Power to life. Activists focused on two main tenets: black autonomy and self-determination. The movement began in America, but the simplicity and universality of its slogan allowed it to be applied globally, from Somalia to Great Britain. The cornerstone of the Black Power Movement was the Black Panther Party for Self Defense. Founded in October of 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, the Black Panther Party was a revolutionary socialist organization. The Panthers were known for their Ten-Point Platform, the development of free breakfast programs (which were later taken by the government for the development of WIC), and their insistence on building black people’s ability to defend themselves. The party was heavily targeted by the FBI surveillance program COINTELPro, which led to the death or imprisonment of many black activists. While the Black Panther Party started with black men as heads of the movement and continued to struggle with misogynoir (misogyny directed at black women) throughout its existence, the women in the party were influential and made their voices heard on many issues. Notable activists in the Black Power Movement included Elaine Brown (the first Chairwoman of the Black Panther Party), Angela Davis (leader of the Communist Party USA), and Assata Shakur (a member of the Black Liberation Army). All three of these women were targeted by the United States government for their activism. While the Black Power Movement saw a decline in the late 1970s, due to the relentless persecution of those involved (such as Freddy Hampton), it has had a lasting impact on black American arts and culture. Black Power Definition in Arts and Culture Kwame Ture We have to stop being ashamed of being black. A broad nose, thick lip and nappy hair is us and we are going to call that beautiful whether they like it or not. Black Power was more than just a political slogan  Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã‚  it introduced a change in overall black culture. The â€Å"Black is Beautiful† movement replaced traditional black styles like suits and permed hair with new, unapologetically black styles, like full afros and the development of soul. The Black Arts Movement, founded in part by Amiri Baraka, promoted the autonomy of black people by urging them to create their own journals, magazines, and other written publications. Many women writers, such as Nikki Giovanni and Audre Lorde, contributed to the Black Arts Movement by exploring themes of black womanhood, love, urban struggle,  and sexuality in their work. The effects of Black Power as a political slogan, movement, and form of cultural expression lives on in the current Movement for Black Lives. Many of today’s black activists draw on the works and theories of Black Power activists, such as the Black Panther’s Ten-Point Platform to organize around ending police brutality. Sources Black Power Speech. Dictionary of American History, The Gale Group Inc., 2003.Gist, Brenda Lovelace. Eloquently Speaking. Xlibris, December 7, 2010.History.com Editors. Civil rights activist James Meredith shot. History, AE Television Networks, LLC, July 27, 2019.Walker, Samuel. Black Power! A Slogan is Born. Today in Civil Liberties History, Samuel Walker, 2014.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Teams Are Essential To Success In Both Business And Many

Teams are essential to success in both business and many varied aspects of our personal and professional life. Proper team development is critical to ensuring that high performance teams, and understanding the process surrounding team development is critical for managers and leaders. In this essay, I will discuss the team development process by examining the five stages of team development, and provide personal examples of each of the stages with advantages and disadvantages in my personal experiences in a team environment while serving as part of an organizational re-design team. Teams are defined as small groups of individuals with particular skills that work together to achieve identified goals (Schermerhorn Bachrach, 2015).†¦show more content†¦The team members asked to participate made logical sense as their divisions were critical to organizational change, and would be directly impacted by the team recommendation. In the same initial meeting, however, a disadvantag e was individuals who were not critical to the project came to the meeting and attempted to join the team without invitation. This resulted in those individuals being thanked for their interest, but being told that their participation was not required or desired for the team. The catalyst for this action was the elimination of non-essential team members and the imminent distraction their interests would impose on the team. This action during the forming stage ensured that the team was built of the essential members necessary to participate on the team, while ensuring the team was structured to focus only on the directed goals and objectives of the team. As a leader, I would ensure that team member recruiting and sourcing is deliberate, and that team member guidance is specific on who is being sourced to join the team. The second stage of the team development process is the storming phase. 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Causes of the Decline and Fall of the Western Roman Empire Free Essays

The fall of the Roman Empire was inevitable by A. D. 476. We will write a custom essay sample on Causes of the Decline and Fall of the Western Roman Empire or any similar topic only for you Order Now Christianity had weakened the bonds that had held it together, the people became corrupt, and it got too big. It was also because of the barbarian attacks. All empires eventually fall and Rome’s time had come to an end. When discussing the causes of the fall of the Roman Empire one has to see that this occurred over many years and had many different facets. Each issue has to be addressed independently with the understanding that they simultaneously combined to the dissension within the Empire and the falling of the borders that had been established during its height. By the end of the second century AD, the empire encompassed most of the Mediterranean, including Spain, France, most of Britain, Yugoslavia, Greece, Turkey, the Middle East, Egypt, and Northern Africa. The collapse of the Roman Empire was a calamity; it leads to the Dark (Middle) Ages. Seeing all the bad that came of it, the destruction of art, the collapse of great cities, the deterioration of the system of roads, the ruin of the Mediterranean trade, and the loss of European unity–it’s difficult to imagine any good came of it. But some good did result. The break up of the empire led to the abolition of slavery in Europe. Of course, this, in turn, led to more poverty and the increase of latifundia because the poor people lost their land to the aristocrats. But the slaves were better off as peasants than as slaves. Christianity was a major cause of the fall of Rome. Although Rome had religious tolerance, Romans, especially Jews, didn’t accept Christianity. A lot of people converted to Christianity because they lost faith in the Romans. At first most Christians were Jews but less strict. Many values were different but they still followed Jewish dietary laws and shared many beliefs with the Jews. The early Christians also got circumcised. Even Jesus got circumcised because he was born a Jew. Then he thought he was God’s messenger but many other people during that time also thought that so most people started off not believing him. The Christians started adopting the values that they have today during the time that Saul/Paul was alive. At first he started off as a Jew who hated Jesus and hated the Christians but then he converted and traveled around spreading the thoughts of Christians but he said that Christians didn’t need to follow the Jewish dietary laws and they didn’t need to get circumcised. The Romans and the Jews didn’t like the message that Jesus was spreading so they crucified him. One impact that Jesus had was that more people didn’t want to join the military and they didn’t want to participate in the community. Since the people stopped participating in government and they didn’t join the army, the Roman army composed of the Barbarians from Germany. These Barbarians lead disorganized attacks and even attacked other Roman Barbarian groups. Because of these sloppy attacks, Rome’s army fell and it was no longer the military superpower it was before. Also, many of the lands that Rome had conquered wanted independence and broke free of the Roman Empire. Herbert J. Muller argues in his book Uses of the Past that Rome got rich by conquering new lands and because of trade with new markets and when the Barbarian attacks went unsuccessful they got no more land therefore losing their source of wealth. Edward Gibbon argues the opposite in his book The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He says that the Roman Empire fell because it was too widespread. He says that there was too much land for the government to govern and because of that the government lost money. By the end of the Roman Empire it was widespread and had many land. By conquering these lands they got many slaves from war and from these new lands. The abundance of slaves lead to the growth of latifundia, large estates owned by the rich. These slaves were willing to work hard for little pay so the rich got richer and the poor grew poorer. The poor coloni [farmers] lost their lands and the aristocrats bought them out. Then the poor farmers went to the city and became dependent on handouts from the government such as free grain. There were many causes for the fall of the Roman Empire. Some causes were the rise of Christianity, the fall of the army, the abundance of slaves and the size of the empire. Because of all these reasons and many more Rome couldn’t survive which lead to the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman empire survived and became the Byzantine Empire. Rome’s fall lead to the Dark Ages but Rome has an impact in our everyday culture because they influenced the Greeks of whose culture we have copied in order to build our own culture. How to cite Causes of the Decline and Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

The idea of investigating Essay Example

The idea of investigating Essay The idea of investigating how the human mind perceives colored words is one of those aspects of life that most of us take for granted. In 1935, J. Ridley Stroop performed a series of experiments to examine this phenomenon. In his article, Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions Stroop explained that conflicting color and word stimuli resulted in a phenomenon he described as interference. Because Stroops experiments only demonstrated this effect when participants were asked to name the color of a word with a conflicting meaning stimulus, he determined that the interference was a result of automatic retrieval in reading. My experiment will attempt to replicate the second experiment that Stroop performed during his original study. The aim of this experiment is to determine if automatic retrieval in reading interferes with a participants ability to identify the color of the word displayed. My experiment followed the repeated measures design. I used one group of participants and testeed them in both the experimental and the control condition. Through this method the confounding variable of participant variability was avoided. As the same group experienced the experimental and control variable, any differences must have been a result of the variables and not differences in the participants themselves. A possible disadvantage to the repeated measures design is the order effect, differences exhibited by participants could be due to the order that the experimental and control conditions are presented. To counterbalance the order effect I separated participants into two randomly selected groups, Group A experienced the control variable first and the experimental variable second, while the Group B was exposed to the experimental design first and the control variable second. It was essential to randomly allocate the participants into their groups to maintain the integrity of t he experiment. I flipped a coin to determine if the participant would be in Group A or Group B. We will write a custom essay sample on The idea of investigating specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The idea of investigating specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The idea of investigating specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The independent variable in this design was the presence of a conflicting color name in the stimulus. The measured dependent variable was the amount of time it took to identify the color of the stimulus. The control condition provided the participants with twenty blocks of color to verbally identify; their response time was measured in seconds and hundredths of seconds. The experimental condition provided the participants with twenty words with conflicting color names and word colors, for example, the word white written in green ink. The participants response time was measured in seconds and hundredths of seconds. Participants response times were recorded under numbers rather than names, in this manner the privacy and confidentiality of the participant was protected. All individuals who wished to participate in the study were required to sign an informed conset form. In order to maintain the single blind aspect of the study the participants were be informed of the true purpose of the experiment before participation, however all participants were debriefed after their participation. Additionally, the participants received a copy of the results of the experiments. The experiment does not involve any physical discomfort, and very minimal mental stress. PARTICIPANTS The participants in the experiment came from the student body of Upper St. Clair High School in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The school is located in a suburban community, and a majority of the population are upper-middle class Caucasian individuals. Hence the results can not be generalized across any demographic group except the one represented by the students. The results of the study were influenced by volunteer bias. Additionally, only the population who were free, at the time the experiment was conducted, were able to participate. Also, all the participants were required to be over the age of sixteen, thus eliminating half of the student population of the high school. Finally, since the test relied upon color recognition those individual with color blindness were unable to participate. Eventually, fifteen individuals participated in the study. Twelve of those fifteen were female. Although there was an unequal gender distribution in the sample group, the experiment does not investig ate gender issues. Additionally, since the participants were all high school students, their ages ranged from sixteen to eighteen. MATERIALS The experiment required * SHEET A -( 20 colored blocks) ~ Appendix Page 1 * SHEET B (20 colored words) ~ Appendix Page 2 * Key (Correct Answers to both Sheet A and B) ~ Appendix Page 3 * Standardized Instructions ~ Appendix Page 4 * Sample Sheet ~ Appendix Page 5 * Informed Conset Statement ~ Appendix Page 6 * Standard Debriefing Statement ~ Appendix Page 7 * An accurate digital timer PROCEDURES I felt that it was essential for me to understand the experiment which I was replicating. Obtaining the original article which Stroop published in Journal of Experimental Psychology was invaluable. In order to create my own materials, I relied upon the experimental methodology literature provided in my texts as well as my background research. Essentially, I created methods analogous to those used by Stroop in the second of his three experiments. In order to garner volunteers for my experiment, we placed an invitation the morning announcements. Additionally, my psychology teacher requested students in her other classes to participate in the experiment. I conducted the experiment upon an individual basis. I requested that all participants remain outside the room and called in each participant one at a time. Before they entered the room, I flipped a coin to determine if they were to be in Group A or Group B. Upon entering, I asked them to take a seat, read the informed consent statement, and sign it if they agreed to all the conditions. Then I read the introductory portion of my standardized instructions. I then gave the participant either Sheet A or B, depending on which group they were in. As the participant verbally identified the color of the stimulus, I visually checked their answers with a previously prepared key. I then read the second portion of the instructions to them, and handed them the other sheet. Again, as the participant verbally identified the color of the stimulus, I visually checked their answers with a previously prepared key. Finally, I debriefed the participants with the standard debriefing statement.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Fallacies Straw Man Arguments

Fallacies Straw Man Arguments Fallacies: Straw Man Arguments Sadly, straw man arguments do not involve literal scarecrows. Rather, they are a type of fallacy: i.e., an argument that sounds convincing but contains hidden mistakes. But what exactly does a straw man argument involve? And how can you avoid them in your written work? What Is a Straw Man Argument? Could you beat this guy in an argument? Building a â€Å"straw man† implies constructing an idea that is easy to argue against rather than engaging with the real issue. This typically involves distorting your opponent’s ideas or beliefs to make it easier to refute them (even if you’re not â€Å"refuting† their actual arguments). For example, imagine an argument between Cheryl and Bob: Cheryl: Parents have a responsibility to expose their kids to learning at home as well as at school. Bob: Pedagogical theories that claim children don’t benefit from school are no use to anyone. Bob’s argument here is a â€Å"straw man† because he has misinterpreted what Cheryl was saying. And instead of responding to her suggestion that education can occur outside the classroom, he is arguing against something she never said: that children don’t benefit from school. Most straw man arguments are subtler than this. But they all involve misrepresenting someone to make it easier to win an argument. How to Avoid Straw Man Arguments It is possible to make a straw man argument without realizing it. This can happen, for example, if we don’t fully understand something that we are arguing about in a college paper. As such, to avoid this fallacy in your work, you should always: Read your source closely. And when you’ve read it once, re-read it so you have a full understanding of what the author is saying. Keep close track of your sources and cite them clearly. This will ensure you’re always engaging closely with the person you’re arguing against. Be charitable when interpreting your opponent’s arguments. Are you sure they mean what you think they mean? What else could they be saying? Look for sources that defend the position you’re arguing against. If they make good points, acknowledge and engage with these ideas in your work. Remember you’re trying to find the truth. If you need to distort someone’s ideas to beat them in an argument, you’re missing the point! With the above in mind, you should be able to avoid making straw man arguments. And if you’d like help expressing yourself clearly, don’t forget to get your work proofread.

Monday, March 2, 2020

Operation Pastorius - World War II German Operation Pastorius

Operation Pastorius - World War II German Operation Pastorius Operation Pastorius Background: With the American entry into World War II in late 1941, German authorities began planning to land agents in the United States to collect intelligence and carry out attacks against industrial targets. Organization of these activities was delegated to the Abwehr, Germanys intelligence agency, which was headed by Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. Direct control of the American operations was given to William Kappe, a long-time Nazi who had lived in the United States for twelve years. Canaris named the American effort Operation Pastorius after Francis Pastorius who led the first German settlement in North America. Preparations: Utilizing the records of the Ausland Institute, a group that had facilitated the return of thousands of Germans from America in the years before the war, Kappe selected twelve men with blue-collar backgrounds, including two who were naturalized citizens, to begin training at the Abwehrs sabotage school near Brandenburg. Four men were quickly dropped from the program, while the remaining eight were divided into two teams under the leadership of George John Dasch and Edward Kerling. Commencing training in April 1942, they received their assignments the following month. Dasch was to lead Ernst Burger, Heinrich Heinck, and Richard Quirin in attacking the hydroelectric plants at Niagara Falls, a cryolite plant in Philadelphia, canal locks on the Ohio River, as well as Aluminum Company of America factories in New York, Illinois, and Tennessee. Kerlings team of Hermann Neubauer, Herbert Haupt, and Werner Thiel were designated to strike the water system in New York City, a railroad station in Newark, Horseshoe Bend near Altoona, PA, as well as canal locks at St. Louis and Cincinnati. The teams planned to rendezvous at Cincinnati on July 4, 1942. Operation Pastorius Landings: Issued explosives and American money, the two teams traveled to Brest, France for transport by U-boat to the United States. Embarking aboard U-584, Kerlings team departed on May 25 for Ponte Vedra Beach, FL, while Daschs team sailed for Long Island aboard U-202 the next day. Arriving first, Daschs team landed on the night of June 13. Coming ashore on a beach near Amagansett, NY, they wore German uniforms to avoid being shot as spies if captured during the landing. Reaching the beach, Daschs men began burying their explosives and other supplies. While his men were changing into civilian clothes, a patrolling Coast Guardsman, Seaman John Cullen, approached the party. Advancing to meet him, Dasch lied and told Cullen that his men were stranded fisherman from Southampton. When Dasch refused an offer to spend the night at the nearby Coast Guard Station, Cullen became suspicious. This was reinforced when one of Daschs men shouted something in German. Realizing that his cover was blown, Dasch attempted to bribe Cullen. Knowing he was outnumbered, Cullen took the money and fled back to the station. Alerting his commanding officer and turning in the money, Cullen and other raced back to the beach. While Daschs men had fled, they saw U-202 departing in the fog. A brief search that morning unearthed the German supplies which had been buried in the sand. The Coast Guard informed the FBI about the incident and Director J. Edgar Hoover imposed a news blackout and commenced a massive manhunt. Unfortunately, Daschs men had already reached New York City and easily evaded the FBIs efforts to locate them. On June 16, Kerlings team landed in Florida without incident and began moving to complete their mission. The Mission Betrayed: Reaching New York, Daschs team took rooms in a hotel and purchased additional civilian clothing. At this point Dasch, aware that Burger had spent seventeen months in a concentration camp, called his comrade for a private meeting. At this gathering, Dasch informed Burger that he disliked the Nazis and intended to betray the mission to the FBI. Before doing so, he wanted Burgers support and backing. Burger informed Dasch that he too had planned to sabotage the operation. Having come to an accord, they decided that Dasch would go to Washington while Burger would remain in New York to oversee Heinck and Quirin. Arriving in Washington, Dasch was initially dismissed by several offices as a crackpot. He was finally taken seriously when he dumped $84,000 of the missions money on the desk of Assistant Director D.M. Ladd. Immediately detained, he was interrogated and debriefed for thirteen hours while a team in New York moved to capture the rest of his team. Dasch cooperated with the authorities, but was unable to provide much information regarding the whereabouts of Kerlings team other than stating they were due to meet in Cincinnati on July 4. He was also able to provide the FBI with a list of German contacts in the United States which had been written in invisible ink on a handkerchief issued to him by the Abwehr. Utilizing this information, the FBI was able to track down Kerlings men and took them into custody. With the plot foiled, Dasch expected to receive a pardon but instead was treated the same as the others. As a result, he asked to be jailed with them so they would not know who betrayed the mission. Trial Execution: Fearful that a civilian court would be too lenient, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered that the eight would-be saboteurs be tried by a military tribunal, the first held since the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln. Placed before a seven-member commission, the Germans were accused of: Violating the law of warViolating Article 81 of the Articles of War, defining the offense of corresponding with or giving intelligence to the enemyViolating Article 82 of the Articles of War, defining the offense of spyingConspiracy to commit the offenses alleged in the first three charges Though their lawyers, including Lauson Stone and Kenneth Royall, attempted to have the case moved to a civilian court, their efforts were in vain. The trial moved forward in the Department of Justice Building in Washington that July. All eight were found guilty and sentenced to death. For their assistance in foiling the plot, Dasch and Burger had their sentences commuted by Roosevelt and were given 30 years and life in prison respectively. In 1948, President Harry Truman showed both men clemency and had them deported to the American Zone of occupied Germany. The remaining six were electrocuted at the District Jail in Washington on August 8, 1942. Selected Sources U-boat.net: Special OperationsHistoryNet: German Saboteurs Invade America in 1942FBI: George John Dasch the Nazi Saboteurs

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Pick a time in your life that was greatly significant to you, one that Essay

Pick a time in your life that was greatly significant to you, one that marked a change in your life and perspective and one tha - Essay Example This mass shooting incident churned my insides because for the first time I experienced the meaning of death and the sense of loss executed by it. Before that ominous day of December, I attached no value to the idea of life being a hotheaded nonconformist that I was. I was engaged in an endless search for happiness and sense of purpose. That search took me to different places but I never got any answer. But after 14th December 2012, I realized that sometimes answers to fundamentally important questions of life can be embedded in witnessing the tragic demise of someone you dearly love. Yes, that is true. I realized the importance of my life after experiencing the tragic death of someone I had stayed close to for 5 long years. The person who died after the mass shooting occurred at the hospital because of fatal wounds was the little brother of my dearest friend. It seems like I have known this family forever and after I arrived in the US from Asia about 6 years ago, my friend’s family has been my family in its most literal sense. I have known these people forever and I adore them as fiercely as my own family. In my friend’s mother, I see the unbelievable generosity of my mother and in his little brother’s innocent tricks, I used to witness the youthful cheekiness of my own little brother living in Asia. I several times played the role of a big brother for that little man accompanying him to super stores whenever my friend was unavailable or assisting him in other chores. When I first heard the news of the tragic incident, I was sitting hopelessly bored at a cafe thinking about what interesting task could I engage in to make my life a little worthwhile. After I was told that my friend’s little brother had also got severely wounded amidst shooting, I acutely remember the whole scene literally darkened for some moments. And after his death, everything happened so quickly, watching my friend and his mother shell-shocked over their irrecove rable loss inculcated an overpowering respect for life in my heart in that same instant. I acknowledged the unique power of life and dark loss of death due to that unfortunate social event which depressed the entire society beyond possibility and is still making headlines. That event changed me as a person forever. Before that, I had minimal respect for life and the associations shared by me with significant others struck no chord in my heart for long. Now, I have a thriving passion for life and essentially attach considerable importance to every moment I spend with the people I love because one never knows what tomorrow might bring. That time of my life also compelled me to think about certain serious issues of the society in which I had no interest before due to lack of awareness. But, such an intense experience helped me to understand the validity of the anti-gun sentiments in the US. Considering myriad lives and families destroyed by such deadly mass shootings, I believe now tha t every college’s administration in every state should go all the way through to prohibit students from bringing guns. My perspective about the whole issue is also same as that of the majority’s according to which guns simply do not belong in a college classroom. Research also stresses that gun control is strongly related to sound societal values (Wilson 9) and inability of colleges to become major front in fight over carrying