Saturday, August 31, 2019

More so than any other issue facing us we must all start to reduce our ecological footprint

Yes, we must start to reduce our ecological footprint as developement of the world over the past 20 years has proven to be unsustainable. Meaning that we are actually living beyond our means e. g. A quarter of all fish stocks are overharvested, Humans now use between 40% and 50% of all available freshwater running off the land and deforestation increase risks of various deadly diseases such as malaria and cholera. Our way of life is placing an increasing burden on the planet and this can certainly not be sustained. To be sustainable, nature's resources must only be used at a rate which they can be replenished naturally. Scientific evidence shows now that humanity is living in n unsustainable way. Humans are consuming the Earth's limited natural resources more rapidly than they are being replaced by nature. Now a human effort to keep human use of natural resources within the sustainable development aspect of the Earth's finite resource limits is now an issue of huge importance to the present and future of humanity. â€Å"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. † As our world population increases rapidly our use of natural resources cannot go on forever and unless we start to make progress with reconciling these contradictions everybody, where ever they are will face a much less certain and secure lifestyle to the lifestyle we live in today. No, we don't have to reduce our ecological footprint as the world we live in right now is suffering from much worse issues presently and so in dealing with the issue of the footprint brings alot of limitations. The term ecological foot print also lacks a temporal dimension. For example, safe custody, monitoring and storage of high level nuclear waste will tie up people, corporations and land for over 100,000 years. For it to be successful will require political will, social stability and unwavering purpose through those millennia. This, too, will impose its load on the planet, both directly and in terms of the opportunity cost. The â€Å"given population† in the definition above needs to be specified: is it the human population? The population of all animals? The population of all life? In my personal opinion, I agree with the concept of reducing our ecological footprint as it is seriously harmful to the world both presently and for future generations. Although I realise that there is a for and against argument for this cause, I find myself leaning more towards the Yes side of the argument because I believe we should respect this Earth not destroy it, as it is the only one we've got. The earth cannot be replaced and neither can all the natural resources we use up or destroy so rapidly without a moments thought to both the consequences and meaning.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Use of Prayer and Scripture in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

Use of Prayer and Scripture in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Journal Article Beatrice St. Surin Liberty University COUN-506 September 23, 2012 Abstract According to the article Use of Prayer and Scripture in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, published in the Journal of Psychology and Christianity in 2007, Siang-Yang Tan talked about how prayer and scripture can be incorporated into the practice of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).Lately, in the field of CBT, there have been an increased on a suggestive awareness regarding a two-component model that involves self-regulation of attention in order to preserved on instant knowledge, centers on present circumstances, and implements an orientation to the acceptance of a person’s situation. Tan demonstrated that this model of CBT can be combined with prayer and scriptural truth to bring long-term benefit to clients.He mentioned a study by Hayes, Luoma, Bond, Masuda and Lillis (2006) that defined an ancient method of behavior therapy that was divided into three generational actions and involved a gradual transition from traditional behavior therapy and CBT to a collection of views and approaches like Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) (Tan, 2007, p. 101). Tan referred to a self-developed biblical model to this approach that consists of an 8-part process. These processes consist of emphasizing agape love, the necessity to cultivate a sincere and open relationship with the client.While they ease the process of settling with past unresolved issues they also help with discovering spiritual meaning; by means of scriptural truth to stimulate behavior change; depend on the Holy Spirit’s ministering; concentrating on the main goal and stick to techniques that are biblical. The discussion of ongoing research before generated irrefutable statements about the advantage of CBT (Tan, 2007, p. 102). Tan also addressed the use of implicit and explicit integration in therapeutic situations.He vowed that the choice o f either an implicit or an explicit method should be decided first and foremost by the necessities of the client, and that the Holy Spirit should be relied upon for guidance (Tan, 200, pp. 102-103). According to the article, Tan however, did not emphasize to take for granted that all clients will be comfortable with the inclusion of prayer and scripture in the CBT process. He stated that this approach may not be suitable with more severely distressed or psychotic clients (Tan, 2007, p. 104).A complete intake interview will obviously reveal whether the client is open to this method or whether this technique is appropriate. Tan stressed that this type of approach is very beneficial to clients who are experiencing depression, anxiety and anger issues, as well as those struggling with addictions. One method, developed by Tan in 1992, is a 7-step inner healing prayer. This method is a form of communication between the Counselor and the client to concentrate more on Christ than upon the h urt or childhood trauma they have experienced.It is really good that Tan also described actual interaction between client and counselor (Tan, 2007, p. 105). Tan indicated that the appropriate and ethical use of Scripture and prayer in CBT can be a significant help to Christian’s clients who completely believe the Bible to be the inspired Word of God and their definitive authority in life (Tan, 2007, p. 108). He also expressed how the use of Scripture can enhance cognitive restructuring.Although, this technique of combining prayer and scripture with CBT appeared to be a very good approach, Tan cautioned the readers that there are some clients who will not accept it, even though several empirical studies have shown its benefits. It is evident to see how the author is addressing an approach to therapy that has in the past been overlooked by many typical practitioners. The combination of CBT with prayer and scripture obviously provides most clients with durable, maintenance-free resolution.Since we are created by God (Genesis 1:27), in my opinion, it makes perfect sense to go to him when something is broken and need repairing. As Christians, we understand that absolute truth comes only from the Scriptures and that God alone is truth. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God (John 1:1). I believe Christian counselors should, therefore, make positive use of what God has given them in their attempts to reconstruct an individual’s thought rocesses. Subsequently we all have bad thinking sometimes and are in need to reframe the mind. For instance, according to the word, Jesus died for all of our sins (John 3:16, 1 John 2: 1-2), but after we accepted Jesus Christ in our lives, most of us struggled with self- forgiveness. We can only count on the Holy Spirit to change our thoughts and reveal the truth through the Scriptures to replace all the lies and misconceptions, we formulated from old traumatic experiences.The knowl edge I accrued from this article are similar to what I went through myself last year around this time; but, I would say I found it very encouraging that experimental studies are beginning to demonstrate the benefits of incorporating prayer and scripture into CBT, and that the scientific community is beginning to take notice. After reading this article, I was inspired to look for more information on this subject, and see what others are doing in this area to help people who profoundly brokenhearted.It’s acknowledged that in CBT a therapist with the best intentions can convince a client to reason differently about themselves and to change their views about their history. Although, after I observed a family member fell into a deep depression after she lost of her husband, got better with Therapy then lost it completely when her mother passed away. It is apparent that at any particular time in a client’s life one day, something dramatic can happen and all the work accompli shed can be undone by another disturbing event that can cause the client to regress to the previous defective thinking.I would say, I truly believe until a client is set free by the Lord Jesus Christ, the giver of life (Genesis 2:7); they will never be completely free. Application As a Christian who had to face my own demons in life, I could say before July 2011 I never used the principles of the inner healing prayer. It was not until I was strike by a very rare illness that was destroying me mentally and physically, no doctor or specialist knew what was wrong with me when part of the sickness was visible physically. All tests ran was very good but no one new or could explain why I was so sick.It wasn’t until a friend of mine took me to his Co-Pastor at a new Church, and the pastor and his wife are both professional Christian counselors. They used that approach for me and I found it to be a very effective approach. Although, I have to say that I truly believed God did a mirac le for me due to the fact that I was not only healed mentally, but also physically. I will definitely use this method when I complete my degree and begin helping people. Furthermore, I plan to use this approach with references to the Scriptures, as the Lord guides me for all my clients who will be open to this method.Even though, right now I am working as an accountant, my line of work does not involve any counseling or helping people but I have many of my tax clients, business clients, Church brothers, sisters and friends with various problems. Many are depressed, suffer from gender confusion, childhood traumas and addiction issues. I believe with the help God, this extra education and with support from my husband and children, I will incorporate prayer and scripture with CBT in my ministry at my church and in my community. My approach with my clients will be to always begin a session with prayer.Then a complete intake interview, follow with encouraging the client to reflect and re trieve the memories that have been the most traumatic if it is a new client. I will help the client to develop a warm and open relationship with me, make he/she feels safe and that it is okay to accept the truth of what happened, and recognize the hurts and dishonesties associate with the memories. As the client re-live the events of what took place in the past, I will pray silently and call upon the Holy Spirit to take control, to give me discernment and reveal the truth to me about the memories.I will then encourage the client to tell me what he/she is feeling and discern from the answers what book of the Bible can be helpful according to the Word of God. I will also tell the client to do a confession prayer to ask God for forgiveness and help to forgive anyone that was not easy to forgive. This will then be followed by giving the client some homework that might include a 3 day of fast while asking God to reveal more memories. I will ask them to write down anything else that God r eveals during the fast after the previous session.After the client has obtained truth from the Lord regarding the painful event, we will then re-visit that place and see how the client feels about the memory and how he/she relates to the new experience. From there I will ask the Holy Spirit to guide me to what to do next. I will encourage prayer, reading the scriptures, meditation on the word and anything that transpires before the next session. I will end the session by asking the client to pray and thank God for revealing the truth.The use of prayer and scripture in combination with CBT seems to be a very effective technique to help clients make sense of their difficulties. I believe this approach can be the best medicine for a long-term change and freedom from memories who are affecting people’s lives. References Dake Annotated Reference Bible. Tan, S. -Y. (2007). Use of prayer and scripture in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 16(2), p. 101-111.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Balochistan Conflict - Essay

The movement gained momentum during the 1960s, and amid consistent political disorder, the government ordered a military operation into the region in 1973, assisted by Iran, and inflicted heavy casualties on the separatists. The movement was largely quelled after the imposition of martial law in 1977, after which Baluchistan witnessed significant development. After insurgency groups again mushroomed in the 1990s and 2000s, the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan and the war in North-West Pakistan exacerbated the conflict, most recently manifested in the killings of non-Baloch settlers in the province by separatists since 2006. Background:- 1. First conflict 1948 (led by Prince Abdul Karim Khan) In April 1948, Baloch nationalists claim that the central government sent the Pakistan army, which allegedly forced Mir Ahmed Yar Khan to give up his state, Kalat. Kalat was a landlocked British protectorate that comprised roughly 22%–23% of Baluchistan. Mir Ahmed Yar Khan signed an accession agreement ending Kalats de facto independence. His brother, Prince Abdul Karim Khan, was a powerful governor of a section of Kalat, a position that he was removed from after accession. He decided to initiate an insurgency against Pakistan. On the night of May 16, 1948 Prince Abdul Karim Khan initiated a separatist movement against the Pakistani government. He conducted guerrilla warfare based in Afghanistan against the Pakistan army. 2. Second conflict 1958–59 (led by Nawab Nowroz Khan) Nawab Nowroz Khan took up arms in resistance to the One Unit policy, which decreased government represenation for tribal leaders. He and his followers started a guerrilla war against Pakistan. Nowroz Khan and his followers were charged with treason and arrested and confined in Hyderabad jail. Five of his family members (sons and nephews) were subsequently hanged under charges of aiding murder of Pakistani troops and treason. Nawab Nowroz Khan later died in captivity. 3. Third conflict 1963–69 (led by Nawab Khair Baksh Marri) After the second conflict, the Federal government sent the Army to build new military bases in the key conflict areas of Baluchistan in order to resist further chaos. Nawab Khair Baksh marri appointed an unknow shero marri to lead like-minded militants in guerrilla warfare by creating their own insurgent bases spread out over 45,000 miles (72,000 km) of land, from the Mengal tribal area in the south to the Marri and Bugti tribal areas in the north. Their goal was to force Pakistan to share revenue generated from the Sui gas fields with the tribal leaders. The insurgents bombed railway tracks and ambushed convoys. The Army retaliated by destroying vast areas of the Marri tribes land. This insurgency ended in 1969 and the Baloch separatists agreed to a ceasefire. Yahya Khan abolished the One Unit policy. This eventually led to the recognition of Baluchistan as the fourth province of West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) in 1970, containing all the Baluchistani princely states, the High Commissioners Province and Gwadar, an 800 km2 coastal area purchased by the Pakistani Government from Oman. 4. Fourth conflict 1973–77 (led by Nawab Khair Baksh Marri) Citing treason, President Bhutto dismissed the provincial governments of Baluchistan and NWFP and imposed martial law in those provinces. Dismissal of the provincial governments led to armed insurgency. Khair Bakhsh Marri formed the Baluchistan People’s Liberation Front (BPLF), which led large numbers of Marri and Mengal tribesmen into guerrilla warfare against the central government. According to some authors, the Pakistani military lost 300 to 400 soldiers during the conflict with the Balochi separatists, while between 7,300 and 9,000 Balochi militants and civilians were killed. 5. Fifth conflict 2004 – to date (led by Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti and Mir Balach Marri) In 2005, the Baluch political leaders Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti and Mir Balach Marri presented a 15-point agenda to the Pakistan government. Their stated demands included greater control of the provinces resources and a Moratorium on the construction of military bases. On 15 December 2005, Inspector-General of Frontier Corps Maj Gen Shujaat Zamir Dar and his deputy Brig Salim Nawaz (the current IGFC) were wounded after shots were fired at their helicopter in Baluchistan province. The provincial interior secretary later said that both of them were wounded in the leg but both are in stable condition. The two men had been visiting Kohlu, about 220 km (135 miles) south-east of Quetta, when their aircraft came under fire. The helicopter landed safely. In August 2006, Nawab Akbar Khan Bugti, 79 years old, was killed in fighting with the Pakistan Army in which at least 60 Pakistani soldiers and 7 officers were killed. He was charged by Pakistans government of a series of bomb blasts, killings of the people he professed to protect and the rocket attack on the President Pervez Musharraf. In April 2009, Baloch National Movement president Ghulam Mohammed Baloch and two other nationalist leaders (Lala Munir and Sher Muhammad), were seized from a small legal office and were allegedly handcuffed, blindfolded and hustled into a waiting pickup truck which is in still use of intelligence forces in front of their lawyer and neighboring shopkeepers. The gunmen were allegedly speaking in Persian (a national language of neighboring Afghanistan and Iran) Five days later on April 8 their bodies, riddled with bullets were found in a commercial area. The BLA claims Pakistani forces were behind the killings, though international experts have deemed it odd that the Pakistani forces would be careless enough to allow the bodies to be found so easily and light Baluchistan on fire (Herald) if they were truly responsible. The discovery of the bodies sparked â€Å"rioting and weeks of strikes, demonstrations and civil resistance in cities and towns around Baluchistan. On August 12, 2009, Khan of Kalat Mir Suleiman Dawood declared himself ruler of Baluchistan and formally made announcement of a Council for Independent Baluchistan. The Councils claimed domain includes Baloch of Iran, as well as Pakistani Baluchistan, but does not include Afghani Baloch regions,and the Council contains all separatist leaders including Nawabzada Bramdagh Bugti. He claims that the UK had a moral responsibility to raise the issue of Baluchistan’s illegal occupation at international level. Alleged Foreign Support for Baluch rebels Pakistan has repeatedly accused India, and occasionally the U. S. , of supporting the Baluch rebels in order to destabilize the country. India has however categorically denied the allegations on its part, stating that no concrete evidence has been provided. The facts are controversial, but Pakistan still continues to insist. Iran has repeatedly accused America of supporting Jundullah. After his capture, Jundullah leader Abdulmalek Rigi confirmed these allegations. The US has however denied this. However, neutral observers have repeatedly noted that the Baloch nationalist groups are poorly-trained in military tactics and strategy, and are currently outgunned by the Pakistani state. The groups are mainly armed with small non-automatic weapons and AK-47s, which are widely available in Pakistan, and they currently are not skilled at using Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs), which is seen as strong circumstantial evidence that they are not supported by outside powers, contrary to the repeated statements of the Pakistani state. Baluchi rebels in Pakistan are said to receive major support from the Taliban in Afghanistan. In the 1980s the CIA, the Iraqi Intelligence Service, Pakistani Sunni extremist group Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan and the Mujahedin e-Kalq all supported a Baluchi tribal uprising against Iran. Pakistan has also accused India of giving citizenship to senior Balouch SeparatistSelig S. Harrison of the George Soros funded Center for International Policy has been calling for dividing Pakistan and supporting an independent Baluch province as a means to thwart growing relations between Islamabad and Beijing, as Pakistan has given China a base at Gwadar. These views have been separately promoted by Ralph Peters, an zionist strategic affairs analyst and former U. S. Army officer, and an expert on the Middle East and the Islamic world. Projects in Baluchistan Saindak Copper Gold Project: Saindak Copper-Gold Mine is located in Saindak town, district Chaghi Baluchistan, Pakistan. The discovery of copper deposits at Saindak was made in the 1970s in collaboration with a Chinese engineering firm. The Saindak Copper-Gold Project was set up by Saindak Metals Ltd, a company wholly owned by the government of Pakistan, by the end of 1995 at a cost of Rs. 13. 5 billion. Pakistan and China signed a formal contract worth $350 million for development of Saindak Copper-Gold Project.The court must now haul up senior officers of the FC to explain the role it is playing in Baluchistan. However, the Supreme Court alone cannot solve Baluchistan’s problems. The utter lack of confidence the Baloch have in the army and the federal government requires much greater action. Separatist sentiment is now running deep in the province and the provincial government lacks legitimacy because most political figures have boycotted mainstream p olitics. Bringing them back into the fold should be an immediate priority. This would require the army to recede and take a low profile, and an accounting of all those who went missing in the province. Following that, a far greater share in the spoils of Baluchistan’s economic development needs to be given to locals. From the development of a deep-sea port in Gwadar to royalties in mining projects, the Baloch feel they have been deliberately cheated out of profits from their resources. Only after this is rectified, will the separatist parties begin to tone down their

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Argument Research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Argument Research - Essay Example Children facing such problems will have major health issues later in their life. It is high time that the country design some methods, which will help in reducing hunger (Kanatt, Chander & Sharma 2010, p. 219). The country should invest mostly on agriculture and protect the interest of farmers and any other businessperson dealing with agricultural produce. It will help in reducing hunger within the country and other countries abroad. When US invest on agricultural produce to the extent that the hunger in the country has reduced, the surplus of the agricultural produce can be exported to other countries. However, the exported products will help in reducing hunger abroad. The country should implement methods like preventing land grabbing, producing les biofuel, blocking speculators, support farmers, reduce poverty, target infant nutrition, roll out biotech, and educate farmers on agriculture. As the country implements these methods as a target to reduce hunger, farmers will be motivated to continue producing and even expanding to large scale. It is because through some of these methods; the government and other organizations will protect small-scale farmers. Various studies and researches ha ve been conducted with the aim of reducing hunger in US. Kantor study of 1997 recommended the protection of the environment and saved money. In addition, the study recommended that the government should collaborate with food recovery organizations who are feeding the hungry. Land grabbing is a major problem, which will affect food supply in the future. Many people and organizations are acquiring large tracts of land, which they will use as allotments. The grabbed land will be a beneficial to a few individuals while majority of the citizens are suffering due to hunger. The country should intervene and prevent land grabbing because it is becoming a threat to the country as well as the citizens. The major challenge in preventing land

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Tax Audit Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Tax Audit - Assignment Example Taxpayers facing an audit have to focus on the substantive issues to determine when the tax is due and often give little consideration to the procedural rules relating to the audit and appeal process. It is this gap of substance and procedure, compliance, and controversies that often subjects them to huge losses that would have been avoided. New York’s taxes like in many other states are self-assessed meaning that the burden of calculating the correct tax due falls on the taxpayer and not the taxing authorities. In C.I.R. v Lane-wells Co, the Supreme Court referred to our â€Å"system of self-assessment†, stating that itâ€Å"is so largely the basis of our American scheme of income taxation†. Hence it places a task on the taxpayer to complete returns accurately and on time. A tax audit is when the Department of Taxation decides to critically go through your tax returns and verify the accuracy of the incomes and deductions. For ABC partners the audit is on their partnerships 2012 tax return and their individual partner’s income tax return. This could be because the tax department needs more information validating their tax returns with the reasons such as, failure to disclose all your taxable income, claiming unearned income credit, failure to include additional income and making errors. The tax audit is to enforce and encourage voluntary compliance of the tax laws for an efficient running of the tax system

Monday, August 26, 2019

Answering questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Answering questions - Essay Example I think, this is the main ambivalence of the first paragraph. Also, the author calls this desire a â€Å"shame†, but at the same time he is angry that his wood is intercepted by a public foot-path. His feelings of a property owner are interfered with his consciousness. Forster assumes that â€Å"creation, property, enjoyment form a sinister trinity in the human mind† (Forster 263). According to the author, a man owning property â€Å"ought to do something to it†. Property brings restlessness, which is different from the same restlessness accompanying the act of creation. Property can substitute the material basis needed for creation and enjoyment (which are both good, as the author writes). He thinks that our world is â€Å"material and carnal† and that we should learn how â€Å"to manage our materialism and carnality†. I can’t agree with the author on that. Forster, for example, mentions Tolstoy and his negative attitude to property. But, as a matter of fact, Tolstoy was an earl; he owned a large estate with slaves and was definitely a man of property. Property allowed him to obtain a good education and a material basis to create, i.e. he could waste no time on earning his living, but spend it on thinking and wr iting. Therefore, possessing property does not always mean â€Å"restlessness† about it. However, there are exceptions, but it only means that one should not be so categorical in this issue. II. In her essay Toynbee elaborates on Richard Wilkinson’s idea that inequality is the main peril of society. For her â€Å"equality for its own sake† means a better and healthier society. This opinion is based on Wilkinson’s assumptions that â€Å"social environment can be more toxic than any pollutant† (cited in Toynbee 365). In simple words, poor people see the rich and it leads to envy and other negative emotions, which, in their turn, lead to unhealthy life. It can be proved, the author argues, by the experiments with animals. And since

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Compare and Contrast Videos Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Compare and Contrast Videos - Essay Example Social, political and economic aspects are highlighted in any form of information that perceives to be passed (Zelkowitz 186). This paper considers a comparison and a contrast prior to two videos in the context of passing intended information to the right audience. The video is about a laptop. The handler of this laptop is well aware of the task ahead of the team, but finds himself in a situation where he is asked to do a task that he is not in a position to using the computer. The second video is about cops. It presents a scenario of how cops overstep their powers to handle the public in an unethical manner, given their role in the society. Although the videos are set up on different contexts, similarities and differences can be noted in the procedural development of events prior to each video. Comparison 1. The two videos are used to convey a given message. The first video (about a computer) presents a scenario where the old generation does not know how to use computers. The person who had carried the computer thought that that was his sole duty although they want to break into an army base. The video therefore communicates the importance of knowing how to operate a computer regardless of the age. On the other hand, the video about the cops is aimed at mobilizing the public towards their rights and entitlements. It presents ways in which the cops harass the public, and therefore aims to put the public in notice that the police do over step human rights. Basically, the two videos have a message to pass. 2. Both the videos involve security issues. The team in the video about a computer is about to break into army base. It is expected that this action will trigger security concerns internally and externally. The aim of breaking into the army base is not presented in the video, but if a clean deal is expected out of the actions of this team, then they would use the main gate to get inside the army base. Their actions are therefore tailored towards jeopardizing se curity within and without the army base. Police forces are expected to maintain and order at all times (Gaines 348). When the cops fail to respect the integrity, rights and freedoms of the people, then they fail to observe set laws. This is set to trigger a conflict between the cops and the people as it is seen in the Cop Watch video. Both the videos therefore have aspects of security brought on board. 3. Ill motives While the computer team wants to break into an army base, the Cops in the Cop Watch video are violating human rights. Both the videos present a motive of undertaking an ill-oriented action against another party. In both videos, the characters understand who they are dealing with. That is, the computer team acknowledges that it wants to break into an army base, meaning that they fully understand their actions and they are well informed of the other party. This is the same case with the cops. They fully understand that they are dealing with the public. Although they are w ell aware of the rights and freedoms of the public, they are ignorant enough to act offended and overuse their power and authority. Contrast 1. Tools of work While the computer team is dependent on the computer to achieve their objective, the cops on the other movie are making use of assigned weapons, power and authori

Pauls prison epistles (Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, and Research Paper

Pauls prison epistles (Ephesians, Colossians, Philemon, and Philippians) - Research Paper Example His fashion majorly credits his apostolic ability to Jesus Christ and the will of God. Evidence is in the wording and letter structure that is unique of all Paul’s writings. The epistle of Ephesians was written in Rome in A.D 60 (Walvoord & Zuck 434). This is well explained by the opening of the revelation of John of Patmos. The revelation shows that John was aware of Paul’s letters to seven centers of Christianity in which Ephesus was one of them. Another evidence is the letter known as ‘I Clement’ written in A.D 96 by Clement, Bishop of Rome to the church at Corinthian (Ackroyd 3). According to the salutation that Paul uses, the epistle was a general letter meant for several readers. In the opening greetings, Paul conveys his greetings to God’s people at Ephesus while in some manuscript like in the beginning of chapter three, the word Ephesus is omitted and instead the word Gentiles is used. This shows that this letter was meant to be read in a number of churches in the province of Asia, of which Ephesus was one of them. The occasion for writing this latter is not clear since it does not have a specific audience. However, the book of acts brings out Paul as having spent a significant time on his last visit to Ephesus. In his time in Ephesus, he taught and baptized disciples, taught in the synagogue and the cities where he met a conflict with the pagans. It was in the same occasion that he did a speech of exhortation to the city elders. Therefore, the events mentioned could be suggested as the occasions that lead Paul to write this Epistle (BibleU 1). This letter was written when Paul was in prison in Rome. The supporting evidence is that it was sent together with the letter to Colossae, Philemon, and Philippians, which were all written in a Roman prison. In this letter there is no evidence of who he was with while writing this letter. According to Bruce (245), the epistle was written as an encouragement to

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Sacred Power Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Sacred Power - Essay Example He wanted to know what he believed. On the other hand, Laozi asserts that the most significant thing people can do in life is to have a state of quiet awareness. Become fully empty, quiet the mind’s restlessness only then will you witness all things unfolding from emptiness, witness all things flourish as well as dance in continuous variation. Laozi believes that Dao is the only source of sacred power (Snodgrass, 2009). The influence of the Laozi goes beyond China, as Daoism gets across Asia and in the contemporary period, the Western humanity. In Taiwan, Hong Kong, as well as amidst the Chinese in and beyond Southeast Asia, Daoism is an existing tradition (Snodgrass, 2009). Daoist practices and beliefs have played a role also in the formation of Japanese and of Korean culture, even though here the process of cultural transmission, assimilation, and transformation is very intricate, mainly given the close relations between Buddhism, Daoism, and indigenous traditions like

Friday, August 23, 2019

Compare and contrast binet and simons approach to measuring Essay

Compare and contrast binet and simons approach to measuring intelligence with that of sternberg - Essay Example In 1905, Binet and Simon devised one of the first tests of measuring intelligence in French children. The test was carried out in order to detect French children that were likely to face difficulties in their studies so that these children could receive special education. Binet and Simon developed tests that assessed each child’s intelligence. As a result of these tests, Binet and Simon discovered that tests of memory, practical skills, puzzle solving skills and vocabulary tests were better at predicting the level of intelligence in school children than the simple sensory tests that was previously used (Binet & Simon, 1916). In the approach employed by Binet and Simon to measuring intelligence in children, children were instructed to perform certain tasks; such as defining abstract terms, defining common words, spotting the differences between two objects, recognising objects in pictures, repeating spoken digits and following simple commands and gestures. Sternberg on his own part proposed an alternative, cognitive-components approach to measuring intelligence (1977); he posited that the level of intelligence of an individual could be measured in terms of a data-analysis component that constitutes some form of multifaceted analysis such as deductive reasoning and logical inference. He used this data and statistical analysis technique to disintegrate mental task performance into its fundamental constituents. Binet and Simon invented what is generally known as the Binet-Simon scale, which encompassed a series of tasks that they thought typically represented the intellectual competencies of the children at different ages. They tested their measurement on a sample of fifty children that were divided into five age groups; each group comprised ten children believed to be averagely intelligent. The main aim of the Binet-Simon scale was to compare the mental abilities of some children to those of their

Thursday, August 22, 2019

The Balance of Good and Evil Essay Example for Free

The Balance of Good and Evil Essay â€Å"The Tyger† by William Blake expresses the idea of the creation of evil. It involves a very powerful rhyming scheme to convey the strength of the matter. Through the use of metaphors relating to certain gods, both Christian and Greek views, the image of the â€Å"Tyger† is described. This poem is the second in a pair which was published in his collection Songs of Experience in 1794. Blake’s previously written poem â€Å"The Lamb† was written in his collection Songs of Innocence in 1789, and it represents the complete opposite, the creation of good. Both poems are very necessary to generate the essential question; is the creator of the tiger the same creator of the lamb? Focusing on just â€Å"The Tyger,† Blake questions the maker of this evil beast, and the purpose behind the making. The Lamb is an extremely important piece to both collections. The poem’s focus is centered by the question of creation, but it does so in a modest way, opening as a simple question to a lovable, fragile creature. Little Lamb, who made thee? (1) In the first stanza of the poem the speaker asks the lamb who is responsible for both life and the creation of this innocent creature with the softest clothing and Gave thee such a tender voice (6-7). The lamb symbolizes the association between civilization and the natural world. The lamb is also a representation of pastoral innocence, connecting the urban world with Gods creation. Pastoral life holds a great deal of strength in the poem. This collection contains many pastoral scenes. These peaceful images of life outside of the busy city strongly suggest a sense of peace and tranquility. This connects the characters of the poem to the natural world, where they can consider their existence without the interference of human components. Blakes tender choice of words creates a spiritual mindset which answers the question in first-person narrative in the second stanza that a higher power is responsible. In answering as Jesus Christ, Blake presents his own admiration for God: He is called by thy name, For He calls Himself a Lamb. He is meek, and He is mild; He became a little child. I a child, and thou a lamb, We are called by His name. Little Lamb, God bless thee! Little Lamb, God bless thee! (13-20) By stating Jesus Christ as the lamb’s creator, Blake is signifying that everyone is in some respect a lamb created by God. Although Blake’s religious views are clearly stated in both his collection of poems and in biographies, a creation of his own mythology is tied into his work shown by illustration and by the poems themselves. The second quatrain starts off asking another question, â€Å"In what distant deeps or skies burnt the fire of thine eyes? †(5-6) Distant deeps creates an image of Hell, while skies is referring to Heaven. The eyes are in fact God’s eyes. The question as a whole is asking if it was God in Heaven who created this beast, or Lucifer in hell. Blake is known for using references to Greek gods and goddesses. The question â€Å"On what wings dare he aspire? † (7) depicts Daedalus and his son Icarus who fell from the melting sun after ignoring instructions from his father not to use his wings to fly. The question immediately following also symbolizes a Greek reference. â€Å"What hand dare seized the fire? † (8) represents the Titan Prometheus who was sentenced eternally to a rock where an eagle would devour his liver over and over everyday, in punishment of stealing fire to benefit human civilization. These Greek depictions help to enhance to message of religious drama. Blake is making a bold statement by asking a question that many of us ask at some point in our lives. Is the same god who created all the good in the world, specifically represented by the lamb, also the creator of the Tyger, which represents the brutal side of nature, and in the bigger picture, reality. â€Å"Did he who make the lamb make thee? † (20) This questions the probability of a god creating something so beautiful and pure, but then allowing the creation of something so horrible. Blake uses a very interesting and powerful technique with the line â€Å"frame thy fearful symmetry† (4,20) He uses it twice, and the first time it begins with â€Å"could. † The second time, however, it begins with â€Å"dare. † The repetition and alteration of the phrase serves as a tool to describe the change of tone from questioning the capability to interrogating the reasoning. Symmetry is important because it shows the relationship betwen the Lamb and the Tyger. They are the same in that they are both part of Gods creation. They are both equally important tools of nature, but they are different in that the lamb represents innocence, youth, and positive aspects of nature, where as the tyger represents the more powerful fearful part of nature. Though both can be beautiful in their own way. The Tyger is beautiful in a more experienced light, as one recognizes the striking colors and form of this graceful, yet deadly beast, where as the Lamb is seen in a more childish fashion. Both good and evil are present in the world today. Although they each serve different purposes, their contributions to humanity bring each other balance. â€Å"The Lamb† and â€Å"The Tyger† are equally vital in the intended creation of good and evil, and they share the same creator.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

My Sisters Keeper Essay Example for Free

My Sisters Keeper Essay In My Sister’s Keeper, Jodi Picoult weaves a gripping tale of pathos, humor, and love. As thirteen-year-old Anna Fitzgerald struggles to define herself as a person apart from her sister Kate, Picoult exposes the universal truths of human relationships. Life is full of choices and consequences. Love demands risks and sacrifice; self-examination and sharing. As the characters unfold, in their own words, the importance of communication emerges as a unifying theme. Kate Fitzgerald is dying of acute promyelocytic leukemia. A kidney transplant is her only hope. Anna’s parents assume without question, that she will offer her kidney. Aware that she was conceived to be a genetic match, and ongoing donor for Kate, Anna wants a chance to live her own life. Though she loves her sister dearly, Anna retains Campbell Alexander, seeking medical emancipation, knowing that without the surgery Kate will die. Thus begins the saga of seven lives intertwined in ways none could ever have imagined. Anna forces a legal confrontation that compels each character to examine the relationships in their lives. Sara Fitzgerald has focused obsessively on Kate’s medical needs, unwittingly ignoring the needs of other family members. Brian, a firefighter, finds respite from his family’s ills on the job, and in the stars, which become a metaphor for life. Jesse, eighteen, is the family misfit. Unable to help Kate, he is wracked by guilt. A rebel, he becomes an unlikely healing force. As the court proceedings swirl around Anna, all involved are forced to reckon with the ghosts of their pasts and the paths they have chosen. Picoult addresses the ethics of the situation only tangentially. The ending is superbly crafted, literally pulling the reader into the text. This is a cosmic tale about relationships and endurance, and the ability of love to change lives forever.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Defining Rural Literacies

Defining Rural Literacies The term rural literacies can conjure up a variety of images-that of a young woman teaching students of mixed ages and grades in the one-room schoolhouse, a farm wife mending socks or preparing meals by the fireside, the farmer working in bucolic fields, or the racism and bigotry of small-town rednecks. Many of the images rural literacies bring to mind, positive and negative, are based on established stereotypes and inaccuracies about rural people and what counts as literacy or a misguided understanding of the sameness of rural populations (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Green Corbett, 2015). Understanding how rural literacies are defined and operationalized can offer an avenue for getting beyond stereotypical thinking about rural places and reconstructing new rural literacies to confront global change. There is lack of scholarly work around rural education and literacy studies (Brooke, 2003; Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Green Corbett, 2015). In fact, researchers have long wrestled with whether examining education through a rural lens is of value (Biddle Azano, 2016). Modern literacy research is often skewed towards urban or suburban sites and participants (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007), and education policy largely reflects an urban or suburban bias where reformers and policy makers wrongly assume that what works in these places will work for rural schools as well (). Many rural researchers are calling for an increased focus on the rural context of literacy studies (Azano, 2015; Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Edmondson, 2003; Green Corbett, 2015). Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) state, rural literacies are not something for only rural people to pay attention to; rural should not be seen in opposition to urban but as part of a complex global economic and soci al network (p. xi). They go on to suggest that in order to understand the connection of rural, urban, and suburban areas, we must examine rural lives and literacies and challenge the commonplace assumptions about rural people and rural places that deem them lacking in opportunities for literacy work and community engagement (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, p. xi). At this moment in history, scholarly insight into the role and significance of literacy practice in rural societies may be more important than ever. The incipient story of rural America in the 21st Century is one of change, challenge, promise, and uncertainty. Multiple elements, including environmental, economic, and political factors, contribute to this story. Globalization and technological advancements have transformed industries that traditionally characterize rural places (Edmondson, 2003; Green Corbett, 2015; Schafft Jackson, 2010) while simultaneously changing rural peoples connection to a global world (Bonanno Constance, 2003). Environmental factors, including fracking, strip mining, clear cutting, unsustainable hunting and fishing practices, and corporate farming, further alter rural landscapes (Tieken, 2014). Population demographics are shifting as well, with 80% of nonmetropolitan growth between 2000 and 2010 resulting from an influx of racial and ethnic minorities (Johnson, 2012). The proportion of white rural residents is dropping while the Hispanic population rises (Tieken, 2014). Outmigration experienced in some rural communities as young people leave to seek perceived economic and social benefits (Carr Kefalas, 2009; Corbett, 2007) and influx of baby boomer retirees (Cromartie Nelson, 2009) further contributes to a changed rural America. The question of how rural literacies are defined and operationalized in a globalized world is the focus of this paper. Green and Corbett (2015) explain, Rural literacies are multiple, mutable, and mobile, and ever relational. They inevitably float in a global sea (p. 12); yet little attention to date has been given to the distinctive features of literacy in rural contexts. The phrase rural literacies is, however, used in rural research (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Edmondson, 2003; Eppley Corrbett, 2012; Green Corbett, 2015; Pyles, 2016; Sohn, 2006), but answers to questions of what the term means, how to go about researching rural literacies, and whether there is an actual relationship between literacy studies and rural education are ambiguous. The purpose of this paper is to synthesize literature on rural literacies in an attempt to offer a description of how rural literacies are defined and operationalized and what role, if any, they play in literacy instruction. I will describe the theoretical framework for rural literacies studies, the difficulties in defining rural literacies, and endeavor to synthesize proposed definitions of rural literacies. Conceptual Framework for Rural Literacies Guiding an understanding of the meanings of rural literacies are three strands of thinking: place-conscious pedagogy, New Literacy Studies, and rural studies. Place-Conscious Pedagogy While educators tend to understand the importance of context for learning, practices of standardization deemed more fair and equalizing have typically been more valued in schools. Schafft and Jackson (2010) explain that standardization is a code for the erasure of difference and assimilation to a norm often set by the standards of urban, middle class life. Federal mandates ignore the rural context and define for rural communities the literate practices needed to succeed. Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) state that standardization movements take away the decision-making power of local communities for their schools. They write that national standardization movements, remove from local schools the possibility to define what constitutes literacy and how literacy should be valued in ways that could best integrate literacy practices into the needs and life of the local community (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, p. 26). At the root of place-conscious pedagogy, however, is the idea that th e most powerful forms of learning provide relevance by engaging students in issues of importance in their local communities (Green Corbett, 2015). Place-conscious pedagogy is an approach intended to ground learning in local phenomenon and students lived experiences (Smith, 2002, p. 586). Woodhouse and Knapp (2000) identified five characteristics of place-conscious learning: 1) learning emerges from characteristics of place, 2) learning is multidisciplinary, 3) learning is experiential, 4) learning connects place with individuals and their communities, and 5) learning is designed to educate, and potentially offer solutions to, problems in their communities. Place-conscious pedagogy in relation to rural literacies allows for a valuing of rural literacies that simultaneously foster a deep connection to place and identify those aspects that may require action for local sustainability. Considering rural literacies with regard to place-conscious pedagogy allows for viewing rural literacies with an eye towards sustainability and relevance rather than seeing rural literacies from a deficit perspective. For more than a century, the common public perception regarding rural literacy was one of lack-rural people lacked the same mental fortitude and valued education less than their urban and suburban counterparts (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Schafft Jackson, 2010; Tieken, 2014). Considering how the rural is depicted in literature and the literacies used in place in rural communities helps to define and understand various rural literacies. New Literacy Studies The New Literacy Studies viewed literacy as not just a cognitive act, but a sociocultural one as well (Gee, 2010b). People learn a given way of reading and writing by participating in the distinct practices of a social or cultural group. Two main premises underlie the New Literacy Studies. First is the understanding that literacy has changed from that of the past and will continue to change in the future. These changes happen because of social, cultural, and technological changes meaning that literacy is always situated in a context. Second, understanding how people use literacies in their everyday life can provide insight into how to improve formal literacy learning in school (Gee, 2004). The New Literacy Studies position literacy as a social act and examine how people use situated literacy skills in practicing multiple forms of literacy (Gee, 2010b). Literacy as a social practice means that what counts as literacy is expanded to include reading, writing, speaking, and listening and is not limited to printed text on a page. The ways literacies are read and written by the individual are guided by the values of their social or cultural group (Gee, 2010a). The New Literacy Studies, then, offer a guide for studying rural literacies by examining the ways rural people participate in social and cultural groups. Gee (2010a) writes, follow the social, cultural, institutional, and historical organization of people (whatever you call them) first and then see how literacy is taken up and used in these organizations, along with action, interaction, values, and tools and technologies (p. 5). The sustainability of rural life requires a variety of literate behaviors from rural resid ents revolving around how to make decisions about growth and change in rural communities (Collins Blot, 2003), and examining these literacies can guide educators in understanding to what extent the texts produced in rural settings are representative of rural cultures. Rural as a Field of Study Rurality as a field of study has been debated throughout United States history, and a recent literature review of the rural school problem by Biddle and Azano (2016) documents, in part, the evolution of thinking around rurality as a field of study. These authors found that researchers, educators, and reformers have fluctuated in their focus on rurality as a field of study over the past 100 years. Green and Corbett (2015) argue for the current imperative for rural studies, writing, The question of (dis)advantage is crucial here. Thinking through the relations between space and equity, education and poverty, literacy and social justice, is clearly a matter of some urgency. Addressing the rural in these terms is crucial (p. 5). Rurality is often characterized as the other, different from the norm. This characterization stems from a long history of stereotyping and stigmatizing of rural peoples. Beginning in the 19th Century, publications spoke of the backwardness of rural life and people while advocating for the sophistication of city life (Theobold Wood, 2010). This idea of rural people as lacking education and sophistication continues to be seen in modern television shows like My Big Fat Redneck Wedding or My Name is Earl. Recognizing the complexity of rurality, confronting and critically examining stereotypes, and conceptualizing rural literacies in a globalized world is important for the sustainability of rural places and for rurality as a field of study. Difficulties in Defining Rural Literacies Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) explain that, in their attempts to define rural literacies for their book of the same name, they could not find a specific definition in literacy research. Part of the difficulty in defining rural literacies arises from the complex, differing, and broad definitions of their component parts. Because the words rural and literacy are loaded terms with multiple definitions offered, it becomes challenging to concretely define rural literacies. The following sections describe the complications in defining the terms rural and literacy and thereby the difficulty in defining rural literacies. Defining Rural Many people can offer definitions for the term rural; however, these definitions are usually vague and varied from person to person. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) acknowledges this incongruity, stating, For some, rural is a state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. (Reynnells, 2016, para. 1). Quantitatively, rural is defined by what it is not-namely, anything that is not urban or suburban is rural. The United States General Accounting Office Fact Sheet for Congressional Requesters (1993) states, Metro/urban areas can be defined using several criteria. Once this is done, nonmetro/rural is then defined by exclusion any area that is not metro/urban is nonmetro/rural (para. 1). In general, rural is determined quantitatively by using population numbers and/or analysis of amount of open countryside (Reynnells, 2016). The most common Federal definitions of rural come from the Department of Commerces Bureau on the Census, the White Houses Office of B udget and Management, and the USDAs Economic Research Service. In choosing a particular definition, the USDA advises selecting based on the purpose of the activity on which the definition is based (Reynnells, 2016). Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2012) suggest that these demographic methods of defining rural as anything not urban lead to the homogenization of rural people as the other while elevating urban and suburban to the norm. It is a mistake to regard rural America as homogeneous as the myth of rural homogeneity masks underlying diversity among the people who have historically lived in the American countryside (Davis Marema, 2008, para. 9). While many people may think of rural America as made up of primarily white, working and middle class individuals, the proportion of white rural residents is decreasing while minority populations, particularly the Hispanic population, are growing (Housing Assistance Council, 2012). Definitions of rurality should acknowledge the complexity and diversity of rural populations. Rural can also be understood as a way of identifying oneself or a group. People may identify themselves or others as rural regardless of their current location. In other words, someone can live outside of a rural area and still identify themselves as rural. Howley (2009) relates that it is the meanings associated with rural life and community, not geography or demographics, that qualifies rurality. It is, therefore, important to define rural not only geographically and demographically, but culturally as well (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, 2012; Tieken, 2014). Defining Literacy Like the term rural, the term literacy also conjures up a variety of definitions from the basic, functional skills required for reading and writing to knowledge in a specified area, i.e. digital literacy or country music literacy. The literacy valued in todays schools is typically constrained to a back to basics mentality advocating systematic reading instruction (Edmondson, 2006). Cook-Gumperz (1986) suggests that a standardized notion of literacy tied to schooling leads to a belief that what counts as literacy is that which can be assessed, measured, and compared to the norm. This version of standardized, systematic literacy, it is argued, ignores the context in which literacy occurs. Others argue for broader definitions of literacy which encompass more than grapho-phonic relationships and traditional texts (Cope and Kalantzis, 2009; Gee, 2004; Lankshear and Knobel, 2007; New London Group, 1996). Green and Corbett (2013) suggest that a range in what constitutes literacy is to be we lcomed as it conjures up possibilities for new realizations and articulations of literacy, rurality, and education and helps in rethinking the [] literacy practices of the school, and thereby in enriching both praxis and inquiry (p. 4). Defining Rural Literacies The broad and differing definitions of the terms rural and literacy help to explain the difficulty in defining rural literacies. Any definition of rural literacies should elucidate the role and significance of literacy practices for (and perhaps unique to) rural communities while also acknowledging the diversity of different ruralities and the complex nature of a globalized society. Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) propose a definition for rural literacies that takes into account the rural context and has as its goal the sustainability of rural areas when they define rural literacies as the particular kinds of literate skills needed to achieve the goal of sustaining life in rural areas (p. 4). Their concept of sustainability stems from the 1987 World Commission on Environment and Development definition, which defined sustainability as the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (Donehower, Hogg, Schell , 2007, p. 4). This definition has guided how rural literacies have been operationalized, which will be discussed next. Conceptualizations of Rural Literacies In reviewing literature on rural literacies, it became evident that no fixed qualities exemplify rural literacies. In part, this is because the diversity and breadth of rural areas precludes a concrete definition. The particular literacy practices valued in one rural area may not be those valued in another area. Three broad conceptualizations of rural literacies, however, have been offered by scholars (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007; Edmondson, 2003; Eppley, 2013). Although scholars have not referred to these conceptualizations by the same terms, they can be synthesized under the categories: traditional rural literacies, neoliberal or modern rural literacies, and new or postmodern rural literacies (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007; Edmondson, 2003; Eppley, 2013). Traditional Rural Literacies Both Edmondson (2003) and Eppely (2010) refer to their first category of rural literacies as traditional literacies. Traditional rural literacies reflect a nostalgia for the past that is read in opposition to the conditions of todays modern life. Often idealized, traditional rural literacies envision a simpler, more moral life strongly connected to place and attached to the land (Edmondson, 2003). These literacies advocate a return to so-called glory days as a way to solve the problems of modern rural life. Dominant traditional rural literacies are based on the ideal of the family farm- rural families making their living off the land and stoic farmers characterized by a belief in taking care of their own (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, Edmondson, 2003; Eppely, 2013). In traditional literacies, the farm and its land are symbolic of the very best way to be American; yet this dominant understanding of traditional rural literacies is misguided and ignores the fact that not all tradition al rural literacies are agrarian (Eppely, 2013, p. 81). In fact, small farms have been radically changed due to globalization. Of the 60 million people who reside in rural areas, less than 2% earn their primary living through farming (USDA, 2012); yet, for many people, the ideal of the farm still exemplifies rural America. Preservation of rural culture is typically offered as the solution to modern rural problems by those who envision rural literacies as primarily traditional. Preservationists recognize rural culture as something apart from urban life and see the need to preserve its difference (Shapiro, 1978). In schools, oral history projects and other preservation projects which isolate the particularities of rurality are often used as a way to educate students concerning traditional rural literacies and as a way to preserve the past (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007). While these types of projects which educate students about traditional rural literacies can be beneficial, Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) caution teaching traditional literacies with an eye only toward preservation. They write, We must interrogate the source of our desires to preserve rural places and be ever-conscious of the danger that lies in preservationist models that seek to make of rural places a monolithic symbol of a collective American heritage for those who live in urban and suburban areas, rather than vital and diverse communities that can adapt to economic and demographic shifts. Preservationist projects that seek to turn rural communities into museums essentially ensure that those communities cease to exist, as no one actually lives in a museum. (p. 44) Giroux (2004) advocates using public memory not as a museum to cultural perfection but as an opportunity to critique and debate the complexities of that memory. Modern or Neoliberal Rural Literacies Another way to conceptualize rural literacies is what Edmondson (2003) terms neoliberal rural literacies and Eppely (2010) describes as modern rural literacies. Modern/Neoliberal literacies see a rural way of life as ill-equipped to meet the needs of people in a global economy (Edmondson, 2003; Eppely, 2010). Mass production, efficiency, and neoliberal principles should characterize rural life where rural communities are seen as vehicles for reducing production costs. Agribusiness, free market logic, and capitalism are king while literacy is reduced to a generalizable set of practical skills necessary for economic participation as employee or consumer (Eppely, 2010, p. 85). Neoliberalism/modernism, then, insinuates that education for life in place is not sufficient for rural students, and the solution to the inadequacy of rural communities is to modernize rural education (Edmondson, 2003; Shapiro, 1978). Local literacies are disregarded in the face of standardization, and the purpose of public education is narrowed to ensure American economic success in a global economy (Eppely, 2010). Shafft and Jackson (2015) write, public education serves the economic imperative of capitalism by severing attachment to place and producing mobile, adaptable youth flexibly responsive to changing labor market conditions (p. 2). Green (2013) writes that the idea that location plays no part in the delivery of instruction leads to contemporary arguments that introducing new digital technology into schooling overcomes many of the difficulties and disadvantages of rural education (p. 20). Technology is seen as a way to solve many of the inadequacies of rural schools despite s trong assertions that place matters. Standardization removes from local school systems the ability to define what constitutes as literacy for their communities, and neoliberal/modern interpretations of rural literacies do not allow the opportunity for local places to determine how rural literacies can best be enacted to sustain local communities. New or Postmodern Rural Literacies The inadequacies of traditional and modern or neoliberal rural literacies in encapsulating contemporary rural literacies necessitates a third conceptualization of rural literacies in a globalized world. A new conceptualization, termed new (Edmondson, 2003) or postmodern (Eppely, 2010) rural literacies, has been suggested that proposes ways of understanding literacy as a resource for democratic citizenship that shapes the potential for rural communities to experience the economic prosperity, environmental protection, and social equity desired to make rural communities sustainable places (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007, p. 12). The key to this conceptualization is the idea of sustaining rural places rather than preserving an ideal rural culture or modernizing rural places so they resemble urban and suburban areas. An important understanding of sustainability is that economic systems are interlinked-the consumer practices of urban and suburban people affect rural communities (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007). Postmodern rural literacy practices enable people to critically examine their communities, including taken for granted truths about rural people and life, and communicate with others both their potential and limitations (Eppely, 2010). Postmodern rural literacies also allow for critique of modern assumptions that new is always better (Edmondson, 2003). Rural literacies become a tool for citizens to deconstruct and critique their own literacy practices to determine how they want to live together. Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) write, rural people can and do make conscious, informed choices among different alternatives for practicing and valuing reading and writing, acknowledging literacys important functions in navigating the complex economic and social realities of rural life (p. 68). Defining and understanding new or postmodern rural literacies is essential in shaping relationships both inside rural communities and with the outside world. This conceptualization acknowledges multiple forms of rural literacies and encourages Add more here about Prairie Town identification among rural, urban, and suburban citizens. In Prairie Town, Edmondson (2003) advocate for a critical public pedagogy that questions and renegotiates the relationships among rural, urban, and suburban people in order to sustain rural communities (__). Instead of placing rural, suburban, and urban communities in opposition to one another, new rural literacies enable examining the ways literate practices can connect communities and ensure a sustainable future for everyone (Donehower, Hogg, Schell, 2007). Conclusion It is a myth that rural literacies are based solely on traditional models of literacy. Examining the literature on rural literacies shows the complexity of literate practices in rural communities that reflect a mixture of traditional, modern or neoliberal, and postmodern or new rural literacies. Rurality is not defined by images of a one-room schoolhouse, a farm wife mending socks, a farmer working in bucolic fields, or an uneducated hillbilly. The realities of rural literacies are that they are complex, multiple, and evolving in relation to a globalized world. As Donehower, Hogg, and Schell (2007) conclude, the phrase rural literacies should suggest reading and writing as social action that supports and sustains diverse communities trying to cope with complex, often interlinked economic, social, cultural, and environmental issues (p. 193). Rural literacies research that addresses these issues and contributes in the ability of rural communities to address these issues is essential. References Azano, A.P. (2015). Addressing the rural context in literacies research. 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(2009). Baby Boom Migration and Its Impact on Rural America. Retrieved from USDA website: err79/9346_err79_1_.pdf Davis, D., Marema, T. (2008). A rural perspective. Grantmakers in the Arts, 19(3). Retrieved from Donehower, K., Hogg, C., Schell, E.E. (2007). Rural literacies. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Donehower, K., Hogg, C., Schell, E.E. (2012). Reclaiming the rural: Essays on literacy, rhetoric, and pedagogy. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Edmondson, J. (2003). Prairie Town: Redefining rural life in the age of globalization. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield. Eppley, K. (2013). My roots dip deep: Literacy practices as mirrors of traditional, modern, and postmodern ruralities. In Green, B. Corbett, M. (Eds.) Rethinking rural literacies: A transnational perspective. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Eppely, K., Corbett, M. (2012). Ill see that when I believe it: A dialogue on epistemological difference and rural literacies. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 27(1/2), 1-9. Gee, J. P. (2004). Situated language and learning: A Critique of traditional schooling. London: Routledge. Gee J. P. (2010a). A situated-sociocultural approach to literacy and technology. In Baker E. (Ed.), The new literacies: Multiple perspectives on research and practice (pp. 165-193). New York: Guilford. Gee, J.P. (2010b). New digital media and learning as an emerging area and worked examples as one way forward. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Giroux, H.A. (2004). Cultural studies, public pedagogy, and the responsibility of intellectuals. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 1(1), 59-79. Green, B., Corbett, M. (2015). Rethinking rural literacies: A transnational perspective. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Housing Assistance Council. (2012). The rural data portal report: Demographic data, 2010. Retrieved from Housing Assistance Council website: search.aspx Johnson, K.M. (2012). Rural demographic change in the new century: Slower growth, increased diversity (Issue Brief No. 44). Retrieved from article=1158context=carsey Lankshear, C., Knobel, M. (2007). Sampling the new in new literacies. In Knobel, M., Lankshear, C. (Eds.) A new literacies sampler (pp. 1-24). New York, NY: Peter Lang. New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66(1), 60-89. Pyles, D.G. (2016). Rural media literacy: Youth documentary videomaking as rural literacy practice. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 31(7), 1-15. Reynnells, L. (2016). What is rural? Retrieved from United States Department of Agriculture website: Schafft, K.A., Jackson, A.Y. (2010). Rural education for the twenty-first century: Identity, place, and community in a globalizing world. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. Shapiro, H. (1978). Appalachia on our minds: The southern mountains and mountaineers in the American consciousness, 1870-1920. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. Silver, R., DeYoung, A.J. (1986). The ideology of rural/Appalachian education, 1895-1935: The Appalachian education problem as part of the Appalachian life problem. Educational Theory, 36(1), 51-65. Smith, G.A. (2002). Place-based education: Learning to be where we are. The Phi Delta Kappan, 83(8), 584-594. Sohn, K.K. (2006). Whistlin and crowin women of Appalachia: Literacy practices since college. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Tieken, M.C. (2014). Why rural schools matter. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. Theobald, P., Wood, K. (2010). Learning to be rural: Identity lessons from history, schooling, and the U.S. corporate media. In K. A. Schafft A. Y. Jackson (Eds.), Rural education for the twenty-à ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ rst centur

Monday, August 19, 2019

Gloria Naylors Mama Day Essay -- Gloria Naylor Mama Day Literature Es

Gloria Naylor's Mama Day Gloria Naylor's Mama Day takes place in two distinct environments, each characterized by the beliefs and ideologies of the people who inhabit the seemingly different worlds. The island of Willow Springs, comprised solely by the descendants of slaves, is set apart from the rest of the United States and is neither part of South Carolina nor Georgia. As such, its inhabitants are exempt from the laws of either state and are free to govern themselves as they see fit. Only a worn-out bridge built in 1920 connects the inhabitants to the mainland, but the people of Willow Springs are entirely self-sufficient. They believe in the ways of their African ancestors and respect the heritage of Sapphira Wade, the original "Mother" who convinced her master to deed the island to his slaves. They live in the present yet believe in the power of supernatural forces and herbal or root medicine. Mama Day, whose imposing presence in Willow Springs is felt by all of the inhabitants, best understands that he r world is founded upon the power of belief. Belief in that which may seem to defy all rational or logical sense. In New York, however, Cocoa finds herself amongst a group of people who seem distant and interested in only themselves. Stemming from many different backgrounds, the people of New York are always in a rush and "moving, moving, moving ---and to where?" (19). No one knows for sure. Just like the subways, racism in New York moved underground, and Cocoa experiences it as she desperately searches for a job. After having lived in New York for seven years, Cocoa still has not found a suitable mate. Only when she meets George does she start believing again in the goodness and sincerity possessed by some. George is t... ... that Ruby is the source of Cocoa's illness, and admits to Dr. Buzzard that he only believes in himself (292). When he finally visits the other place, he is appalled by Mama Day's "mumbo jumbo" but after seeing Cocoa's condition worsen, he eventually submits to her plan. His inability, however, to understand that a pair of empty hands are all that Mama Day needs costs him his life. George's inability to believe in that which he could not understand leads to his demise. Unfortunately, as Naylor reminds us, "Rational America" insists that everything should have a rational basis. As products of this rational society, we never accept things at face value because we constantly dig deeper in hopes of completely understanding that which may be eluding us. Sometimes, however, it is best to cast aside reason and accept things for what they are and what they represent.

Good and Evil in Bless Me, Ultima :: Bless Me, Ultima

Good and Evil in Bless Me, Ultima In Rodolfo Anaya's novel, Bless Me, Ultima the author uses different settings in order to develop Antonio's sense of good and evil. An example of this would be Rosie's, the local whorehouse. To Antonio, Rosie's tempted his brothers and was the cause of their sins. In one of Antonio's dreams, three figures "silently beckoned" (pg. 65) Antonio into the "house of the sinful women" (pg. 156). Antonio saw his brothers entering and he told Andrew, the last of the three to go in, not to enter. Andrew told Tony that he would wait until Tony lost his innocence and only then would Andrew go into the bordelo. So , to Antonio, seeing Andrew in the "evil house" (pg. 156) was a confirmation of Tony's lost innocence and Tony wanted to stay innocent forever. Another example of the evolution of Tony's sense of good and evil through the utilisation of setting is Tony's own home. To him, his home provided him with warmth and safety. This was due to the people who lived in the house. Antonio's father creates a sense of protection in the home. When Tenorio and his men come to he house to take Ultima away, Tony's father "would let no man invade his home" (pg 123). This gave Tony faith that as long as his father was around, he would be protected. Antonio's mother made home a loving and caring place to be. She would always baby Antonio and give him the affection he needed whenever he needed it. The morning after Tony had seen Lupito killed, Ultima tells Tony's mother not to be too hard on Antonio; he had a hard night last night. His mother puts her arms around Tony and holds him saying he "is only a boy, a baby yet" (Pg.28). The Virgin also makes the atmosphere of Antonio's home peaceful and protected. Tony loves the Virgi n Mary because "she always forgave" (Pg. 42). Tony thought she was "full of a quiet, peaceful love" (Pg.42) which she filled the home with. The most important person who contributed to the goodness of Antonio's home was Ultima. She made Antonio feel as though her presence filled the home with safety, love, and a sense of security. When Tony saw Lupito get killed, it was Ultima who calmed him. Whenever he had a nightmare, Ultima was there to comfort Antonio and "[he] could sleep again" (Pg.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Free Grendel Essays: Social Commentary :: Grendel Essays

Authors often have to choose between concentrating on either plot or social commentary when writing their novels; in John Gardener's Grendel, the plot becomes is a secondary consideration. Grendel's exploits provide the reader with a clear understanding of the strong opinions the author carries and can be seen clearly as a narrative supporting nihilism in its many forms. The reader easily perceives the blatant religious subtext in the guise of corrupt priests and the foolish faithful. The notion of the old being wise is unacceptable to Gardener along with any notion of hero idolization. Within his novel, Gardner expresses his views concerning religion, wisdom and nature. Religion plays a large role in Grendel. Priests do not want to perform their services without the proper payment, which, in turn, allows the rich the most access to 'religion' and God. The citizens of the village are also confusingly polytheistic and monotheistic. When praying to their king god does not decrease the frequency of Grendel's visits, they retreat to begging any god of which they have known for help. This reveals their faith to be not faith at all but rather faith that will remain faith as long as it can be proven. A proven religious faith is contradictory term, for it can only be placed in a religion that cannot be proven lest it is true faith no longer. Grendel's interludes with the dragon portray, at their onsets, the dragon as a worldly, wise creature with much to share. The dragon haughtily informs Grendel about his vast store of knowledge as he teases him with how much he knows. As Grendel's interests are piqued, the dragon expends the cumulative result of his travails: "Know how much you've got, and beware of strangers†¦My advice to you, my violent friend, is to seek out gold and sit on it" (Gardner page #). Although the dragon serves as a vessel to point out the necessity of Grendel and makes some pointed observations about mankind, all his respectability is lost with those two short sentences. The author is making an observation about materialism and the falsehood of wisdom always accompanying age. After all his years of intense scrutiny, the dragon can only grasp from human- and animalkind alike that possessions are the key to life's existence. Nature against society is also discussed in Grendel. The fact that citizens surrounded with religion and social status could be so easily overtaken by nature (Grendel) gives a sense of irony to the reader.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

The al-Qaeda training manual is sobering and provocative

The al-Qaeda training manual is sobering and provocative in terms of what it says, but it is equally enlightening and relevant for what it does not say.The contents of the manual, as well as its omissions, give us a firsthand perspective of the type that has proven so elusive with regard to this particular enemy; the authors of this manual clearly did not intend for it to fall into Western hands, and the manual must be used by the West to revisit and reconsider its counterterrorism strategies, especially as they pertain to the motivations and the tactical capabilities of the enemy.While the majority of the manual focuses on the tactical minutiae of employing political violence, its first pages address the motivations of the authors, articulating their perceived grievances against the West.While the dominant Western paradigm of rational and deterable political actors have led most to focus on specific aspects of Western, and especially American, policies in the Muslim world to hypothe size about the motivations of the enemy, the training manual points more to social forces than to military or economic ones as the foundation of the Islamists’ anger.Al-Qaeda’s authors write in a disconcertingly eloquent way of â€Å"the sister believer whose clothes the criminals have stripped off†.[1]   This is clearly a somewhat overblown metaphor for the secularization of Muslims countries since the time of Ataturk.This point cannot be stressed enough; the word Palestine, that cause cà ©là ¨bre for disaffected Muslims, does not appear in this manual.   Rather they authors see themselves as being at war with the forces of secularization in the Muslim world.This leads us to the second fundamental point of al-Qaeda’s grievances: the focus on the â€Å"near enemy†.   The â€Å"near enemy† is, for al-Qaeda, every government in the Muslim world, save perhaps one or two.   These governments, in eyes of Islamists, have sold out the fai th in the interest of aping the west.This betrayal has extended from banning traditional Muslim dress to forging military and economic alliances with the United States.   The West, in turn, and the United States in particular, is the â€Å"far enemy†.   Al-Qaeda’s paradigm holds that the corrupt and illegitimate rulers of the Arab and Muslim world cling to power only due to the sponsorship of the United States.This claim is not entirely without merit, and is a common claim heard in the Arab world particularly.   To illustrate the depths of the contempt for secular Muslim governments, the manual describes them as being worse than European imperialists, a scathing indictment from such a xenophobic movement.[2]Al-Qaeda initially focused on the near enemy, but after a strategic rift within the group, which was won by Osama bin Laden, the far enemy came into the crosshairs.   The idea was that a catastrophic attack would be easier to organize and execute in an open society and that an attack in the continental United States would bring attention to their cause that they would not gain by bombing all the embassies in Africa.The 9/11 attack was al-Qaeda’s announcement of the shift from targeting the near enemy to targeting the far enemy.   When assessing the tactical details of this manual, we must keep in mind that they are clearly crafted to be implemented in a police state of the type that the near enemy has no shortage of.   We can only conclude that terrorists able to operate in closed societies will be much more capable of operating in an open society.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Fatalistic World View Essay

I do think there are a large number of people who have a fatalist world view, though they might not even be aware of it. It seems to be the growing trend in the United States that a lot of people think even if there is a God he doesn’t have anything to do with them, or they only think about it in times of trouble like foxhole prayers. There also appears to be a large number of secularists, which is kind of a spin-off of fatalism, and they believe in nothing other than man’s ability to endure and overcome problems. I remember before I became a Christian I would never think about God or pray or go to church only when my life was falling apart would I think about God, and that was usually to blame him. Anytime I would start thinking about God or try to attend church I would get extremely uncomfortable. I realize now that was because the closer I drew to God the more my shortcomings were exposed not just to others but also to myself. That reality kept me running from God for many years until I had nowhere else to turn. I believe that is why there are so many with a fatalistic view of life because until self-sufficiency runs out, and our unaided human will fail us completely many people will not honestly seek God’s salvation or help. It is my prayer that fatalist and secularist alike would like me come to see their need for God’s salvation and help in their everyday life.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Opportunities And Threats For Building Environmental Sciences Essay

Every individual on Earth is exposed to environmental radiation. This radiation consists of natural radiation, cosmic radiation and external radiation. External radiation derives from the medical activities, such as X raies or accidents in atomic workss, while natural radiation derives from the decay of radioisotopes in dirt or in bedrock. These radioisotopes may be answered either as a consequence of human activities, such as Strontium-90 ( A ­90Sr ) and Technetium-99 ( 99Tc ) or with physical presence like Uranium-238 ( 238U ) . The decay of 238U green goodss Radium-88 ( 88Ra ) and the decay of 88Ra, eventually produces Radon-222 ( 222Rn ) . Since the 2nd portion of twentieth century when plentifulness of mineworkers suffered from lung malignant neoplastic disease, a batch of research has been conducted on the effects of Rn on worlds. The last 20 old ages and more, the effects of Rn in residential sector have been investigated. Because of this the undermentioned study was necessary to discourse the issues with Radon in homes.2. Radon, beginnings and effects2.1 Radon Radon-222 is a chemical component which has atomic figure 86 and belongs to baronial gases. ( Table 1 ) What is more, it has 3 chief characteristics: it is colorless, odorless and tasteless, and as a consequence it can non be traced by human senses. In add-on, it is chiefly in gaseous stage and and its half life is 3.83 yearss. Al-Saleh ( 2007 ) writes that the half-life clip of Rn makes it more of import than other isotopes ( 220Rn, 219Rn ) . Because of the fact that Rn is radioactive, it comprises a risky component for human wellness. Table 1 Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: // Periodic_table.svg Finally, radon concentration is measured in Becquerel per three-dimensional metre ( Bq/mA ­A ­3 ) in SI and harmonizing to UNSCEAR ( 2006 ) ; typically Numberss for indoor and out-of-door concentration are 100 Bq/ mA ­A ­3 and 10 Bq/ mA ­A ­3 correspondingly. A 2nd unit for radon concentration is picocuries per liter of air ( pCi/L ) and the relationship between the two units is: 1 pCi/l is tantamount to 37 Bq/m3. 2.2. Radon out-of-doorss As mentioned before, Rn is produced in dirt or in bedrock from the decay of Uranium. Because of its gas stage, Rn is diffused in permeable dirts through clefts and so it can be released to the ambiance. When the component enters in atmosphere, it is dispersed and so the concentration is really low. Therefore, radon out-of-doorss is non unsafe for human wellness. 2.3 Radon indoors Harmonizing to BRE ( 1991 ) , â€Å" Rn enters in edifices chiefly by air flow from the underlying land. † Radon is the densest gas, as a consequence to be concentrated below edifices. In add-on, the different force per unit area between the dirt and the indoor may do clefts on the ground-floor concrete slab which are the way that radon gas discoveries to come in the edifice and that difference is besides the necessary force which radon demands to come in. ( Figure 1 ) EPA ( 2012 ) indicates that good H2O and edifice stuffs are besides means with which Rn is transferred into houses. However, it continues reasoning that Rn through stuffs is non unsafe every bit good as H2O, when its beginning is surface H2O. After come ining inside the house, Rn is trapped and it starts to disintegrate. This poses a menace for residents because ; as UNSCEAR ( 2006 ) argues â€Å" radon and its decay merchandises cause lung malignant neoplastic disease † . Khan ( 2000 ) explains that this phenomenon is happened because the restricted airing inside the houses permits Rn and its girls to make high degrees of concentration. Therefore, they enter in human organic structure through respiratory and they are deposited in the lungs. Finally, Rn and its girls, particularly ephemeral offsprings: Polonium- ( 218, 214 ) , Bismouth-214 and Lead-214 emit alpha atoms which lead to malignant neoplastic disease. As WHO ( 2009 ) references, Rn is deemed the 2nd cause after smoking for lung malignant neoplastic disease in the general population. Figure 1: all possible waies which radon can follow Beginning: BRE 19993. Radon: Protective-remedial stepsEPA ( 2012 ) writes that new edifices should be built with Rn protection steps and should besides be tested for Rn concentrations after tenancy. BRE ( 1999 ) , EPA ( 2012 ) and WHO ( 2009 ) reference that all the bing edifices should be tested for radon concentration. However, as EPA ( 2012 ) argues, there is non a degree of radon concentration that it can be deemed as a safe figure. This is explained by WHO ( 2009 ) which writes that the invariably exposure to â€Å" low or moderate † Rn concentrations causes more lung malignant neoplastic disease instances than exposed to high. Therefore, even if homes have concentrations & lt ; 4pCi/L, remedial steps should be implemented for cut downing the figure to the lower limit. 3.1 Protective steps for new homes Basic Rn protection Initially, new homes can be protected by implementing a radon-proof barrier between the dirt and ground-floor concrete slab. This technique is named â€Å" basic Rn protection † ( BRE 1992 ) and can be used to a suspended, unmoved and ground-supported concrete floor. In peculiar, a damp-proof membrane is installed between concrete floor and floor toping ( Figure 2, 3 ) or under them ( Figure 4 ) which secures the airtightness of the house. It is significant to be mentioned that this method should be implemented decently because there are many dangers like damaging the uninterrupted signifier of the membrane. In add-on, this membrane should cover any wall pits so as to be a barrier for Rn and by and large be uninterrupted to the whole building site. If any specific country demands to be sealed or lapped, chiefly articulations, it should be done right. Therefore, craft should be high-quality. Following these stairss, the edifice lessens the infiltration through clefts or gaps an d it is protected by Rn. Figure 2: damp-proof membrane Figure 3: damp-proof membrane in suspended concrete floors in unmoved or land supported concrete floor Beginning: BRE ( 1991 ) Beginning: BRE ( 1991 ) Figure 4: damp-proof membrane in unmoved Figure 5: full Rn protection in suspended or land supported concrete floor concrete floors ( natural airing ) Beginning: BRE ( 1991 ) Beginning: BRE ( 1991 ) Full Rn protection BRE ( 1991 ) argues that the above method is non so effectual while, BRE ( 1999 ) writes that in countries with high concentrations more techniques should be used during building. These techniques are the usage of Rn sumps and usage of natural airing in suspended concrete floors. Natural-Mechanical airing In suspended concrete floors below the slab, natural airing system can be constructed as in figure 5. Meanwhile, the place of fans can besides be created because there are possibilities that the natural airing consequences may be unequal. Therefore, this method combines characteristics of natural and mechanical airing ; nevertheless its effectivity is non certain. Radon sumps Radon sumps are particular buildings which are placed in dirt below the slab in ground-suspended floors. There are two sorts of sumps: depressurised and pressurised sumps. The former has as a consequence the extenuation of Rn from dirt to the ambiance, while the latter leads the Rn gas off of the dirt where the house is placed. They can besides be distinguished in two sub-categories: passive and active. ( Figure 6, 7 ) Passive sump systems do non use fans while active sump systems do use. The map of Rn sumps is based on I ) the stack consequence and two ) the air current consequence. These two phenomena secure that the motion of the radon-laden air throw pipes will be natural. The stack consequence is based on the construct that the warm air moves upwards. The interior decorator has to procure that the pipes used for breathing the radon-laden air will travel through warm topographic points of the house. As a consequence, the air inside the pipe will be warmer and will be given to travel upwards, making a drive force inside the pipe. Therefore, the Rn gas in sump will be emitted to the ambiance of course. ( BRE 1996 ) Figure 4: Typical Passive Sump Figure 7: Typical Active sump Beginning: BRE ( 1996 ) Beginning: BRE ( 1996 ) The air current consequence is related with the phenomenon that when air blows on or above a surface, tends to make a zone of negative force per unit area. In instance of Rn sumps, the air current pulls the air from the airing terminus off. Due to this, a likewise impulsive force is created and the Rn gas from the dirt dispels in the ambiance. ( BRE, 1996 ) Depressurizing sumps have the possible to work as a â€Å" vacuity pumps † . The different force per unit area between sump and air, and the at the same time upward air flow in pipes have as a consequence the dirt gases to come in into the sump and afterwards to be driven to the air. The inactive depressurising sumps ( figure 8 ) do non hold a merriment. However, as BRE ( 1999 ) , WHO ( 2009 ) reference, when the decrease is non satisfactory so an in-line fan should be installed in the pipe in order to increase the air flow. The new system will be called active depressurising. ( Figure 9 ) Owing to this, BRE ( 1999 ) , WHO ( 2009 ) propose that when constructing a inactive sump system, builders should put in the system with a manner to be easy transformed subsequently, if it will be necessary. Active pressurising sumps have as a consequence to take the Rn from the house. A fan located in the pipe blows air in the sump which consequences in the decrease of the sump ‘s force per unit area because the air is removed to the land. Therefore, the air of the house tries to equilibrate the force per unit area and this eventually leads radon out of the house. ( BRE 1996 ) Figure 8: Passive depressurizing sump Figure 9: Active depressurising sump Beginning: WHO ( 2009 ) Beginning: WHO ( 2009 ) 3.2 Remedial steps for bing homes In bing homes the remedial steps do non differ from the protective steps for the new buildings. The execution of sumps may be hard and expensive but it is a remedial step with certain results. However, the simplest mitigating step is the waterproofing of the clefts and gaps which permit Rn gas to come in the house.4. Discussion6. DecisionAs mentioned before, there is no peculiar degree of Rn which could be deemed as a safe degree. In add-on, as Jelle ( 2012 ) indicates there is neither a manner of ciphering exactly the Rn which enters inside house nor the exact decrease after the execution of remedial or protective steps. This is because Rn is a gas and it can work even the smallest cleft or hole to come in a house. Therefore, applied scientists, builders, interior decorators and by and large everyone who is involved in a building, should work with professionalism in order to guarantee the best consequence.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Nazi Germany’s discrimination against the Jews Essay

As a result of anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany, a system of violent suppression and control emerged that ultimately took the lives of an estimated 6 million Jewish people Anti-Semitism is an opposition to, prejudice against, or intolerance of Semitic people, most commonly Jews. Anti-Semitism has existed throughout history, since Israel’s dispersion in 70 AD. In every land in which the Jews have lived, they have been threatened, violated and murdered, century after century. After Germany’s defeat in World War I, many Germans found it hard to accept their defeat. These Germans connived a theory that the citizens at home had betrayed them, â€Å"especially laying blame on Jews and Marxists in Germany for undermining the war effort† ( This is the main reason that led to the extreme discrimination and removal of basic rights of Jewish people in Germany during the 1930’s and 1940’s, however, there were many other reasons including Christianity’s general hatred for Jewry. Jews were often the victims of Nazism. The first Jewish victims of the Nazi era were 8 innocent people who were killed in the streets on 1 January 1930 by Brownshirts. Soon after that, violence against Jews in the streets became common. Violence was an integral part of the Nazi programme†¦ Jews were molested in cafes and theatres, synagogue services were disrupted and anti-Jewish slogans became the daily calling card of Nazi thugs. (Gilbert,2001:31) One particular night of violence, known as Kristallnacht, is remembered with fear. During the night of November 9-10, 1938 thousands of windows were smashed out of Jewish businesses and homes, hundreds of synagogues were burnt to the ground, and more than ninety Jews were murdered. On March 9, 1933 the first Nazi concentration camp was opened at Dachau. On  April 1, a boycott of all Jewish shops was put in place. It only lasted a day, because of threats of a counter-boycott in the USA of all German made goods. However, the expulsion of all Jewish people from Germany’s Universities and then the ‘Burning of the Books’ quickly followed the one-day boycott. The ‘Burning of the Books’ consisted of 20 000 books burned in a massive bonfire in front of the Berlin Opera House, and opposite the University of Berlin. The books that were destroyed were judged to be ‘degenerate’ and ‘intellectual filth’ by the Nazis, many being written by Jewish authors. Also during this time, Jewish scientists and intellectuals were dismissed from their positions, and Hitler was quoted as saying â€Å"If the dismissal of Jewish scientists means the annihilation of contemporary German science, we shall do without science for a few years†. In late 1939, the first ghettos were created in Poland. All Jews were forced to move into a designated area of a city or town, which was surrounded by brick walls topped with barbed wire, and guarded by armed men. SS General Heydrich ordered that the ghettos were to be located on railway junctions, or along a railway ‘so that future measures may be accomplished more easily’. Large numbers of people had to share small living quarters, and medical supplies and food were limited. The Jews could only bring into the ghettos what they could carry, and their luggage was searched and pillaged on their arrival. Life in the ghettos was hard, and death rates were high. Most of the deaths in the ghettos were by starvation or disease. In the two largest ghettos in Poland, Warsaw and Lodz, the death toll from starvation alone in the first twelve months after the creation of the ghettos reached approximately 42 000. In most of Western Poland, there were no ghettos. This was because General Heydrich had ordered Western Poland to be ‘cleared completely of the Jews’. Immediately after the Germans invaded a town, they rounded up all the Jewish people, made them dig large pits, then shot and buried them just outside the town. The ghettos were also referred to as concentration camps and slave labour camps. This was because while the Jews resided in the ghettos, they could be forced to work up to fourteen hours a day in some circumstances. Some were deported to separate concentration camps where they would work on farms in the country to maintain a food supply for the German war machine. Others who stayed in the ghettos worked for the Nazis in munitions factories making armaments, or for local businessmen who paid the government for the use of slave labour to work their factories. These Jews were mostly considered totally expendable, and were subject to minimal food rations, a lack of medical attention, and violent beatings. At least half a million Jews died as slave labourers. The extermination camps, or death camps were the sites for hundreds of mass murders. Men, women and children were deported from ghettos and concentration camps to these death camps and usually taken straight from the train to a gas chamber where they were gassed to death. A few hundred people were kept alive as slave labour to sort through the clothing and luggage of the victims. A small part of this labour force was known as the Death Jews. These Jews performed the task of removing bodies from the gas chambers and stripping them of anything of value. They then dragged the corpses to a crematorium where the naked bodies were burnt. Most of the labour forces were killed and replaced whenever a new group of deportees arrived. The most infamous death camp was Auschwitz, where mostly deportees from Western Europe and southwest Poland were taken. Lilli Kopecky, a deportee from Slovakia recalls arriving at Auschwitz: When we came to Auschwitz, we smelt the sweet smell. They said to us: ‘There the people are gassed, three kilometers over there.’ We didn’t believe it. (Gilbert,2001:77) More than a million Jews were murdered at Auschwitz alone. The Holocaust is probably the most infamous instance of anti-Semitism in History. The oppressive tactics of Nazi Germany took away all the rights of the Jews, and wiped out almost the entire race of Jewish people in Europe. If the Nazis had succeeded in what they came so close to doing, there would not be a trace of Jewry remaining in Europe today.